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Rihard Strauss / Rihard Strauss (a part II)

At all shine of talent and the skill, affecting in Strauss's each new composition, it is necessary to notice in later scores, such as "гшчэі ухЁю " (1898) and the House symphony (1903), known decrease in symphonic idea. Strauss never showed bent for to comprehension of philosophy of progressive thinkers. It was content with Nitsshe and Schopenhauer. Ideas of the first have caused to a life a symphonic poem "Кръ spoke ГрЁр=ѕё=Ёр" (1896), the philosophy of the second has found original reflexion in "РьхЁ=ш and яЁюётх=ыхэшш" (1889).

The Symphonic poem "гшчэі ухЁю " - product autobiographical, but in some measure and polemic, for in the centre of an is musical-dramaturgic plan - disputes, collisions, even fights of the hero with the opponents-critics. Them is "ЁхыъюяхЁют" "сѕьруюьрЁръ" - Strauss represents sounds, almost naturalisticheski reproducing gogotanie herds of geese. Itself the composer symbolically represents in that tonality (a mi-flat a major) in which Beethoven's Heroic symphony is written. He hints at likeness of a theme not only a tonality, but also fanfare character of a melody and a tool paint - French horns. The further decrease "т№ёюъюую ёшь¶юэшчьр" leads Strauss to the House symphony named the author for bolshej of solemnity in Latin language - Sinfonia domestica. If in "гшчэш ухЁю " There was any similarity of ideological underlying reason of struggle of the hero with the opponents in the House symphony Strauss reduces the hero from Parnassus, forces it to dismount from a fighting horse and to estimate a cosiness of petty-bourgeois well-being. Instead of a sword in his hands there is a respectable umbrella, it is surrounded not with colleagues, not adherents, and aunts and uncles. Kind people with smiles not descending from lips, they enthusiastically examine born baby - the child of the hero and, interrupting each other, enthusiastically cry out: "Кюёі in exactly яряр" "Кюёі in exactly ьрьр"...

For twelve years Strauss-symphonist becomes silent. These years he creates variety of operas, speech about which ahead. Only in a year after the beginning of the First World War it comes back to a symphonic genre to which years of a creative youth have been given. In 1915 there is an Alpine symphony.

Despite the intense conditions caused by war, the premiere of the Alpine symphony has drawn attention of general public. All the product which has arisen after so long pause in the given genre interested. The success was big. When waves of an applause have subsided and the critical voice of reason has come into the own, to Strauss (not without the bases) specified on same, as in "-юэ -ш§ю=х" divisibility of the episodes reminding a musical kaleidoscope. The composer reproached that instead of designing of the monumental form it was limited "ёшь¶юэшёхёъшь ЁхяюЁ=рцхь" about stay in the Alpes. Really, the Alpine symphony shares on precisely outlined episodes: "-юёі" "-юё§юф ёюыэчр" "¤ю§юф in уюЁ№" "-хё" "¤Ёюуѕыър lengthways Ёѕёі " "-юфюярф" "-шфхэш  in =ѕьрэх" "Кѕьрэ№ leave тт№ёі" etc. Whether is it is a sign of arrival of Strauss to the style of symphonic thinking cast by impressionists new to it? To this thought declines also an abundance of the most thin coloristic combinations in the score, and the harmonious stains reminding receptions of the letter of the French colleagues of Strauss, and the most figurative system causing in memory impressionistic cloths...

Years "ёшь¶юэшёхёъющ ярѕч№" are filled by hard work over operas, like the symphonic poems, followed one for another. After early experience in this genre - "+ѕэ=Ёрьр" (1893), in 1905 appears "Ррыюьх " behind it "¦ыхъ=Ёр" (1908), "-ртрыхЁ Ёюч№" (1910), "+Ёшрфэр on -ръёюёх" (1912).

Interest to an opera does not die away at Strauss and the next years. In 1917 he writes "гхэЁшэѕ without =хэш" then "Ђэ=хЁьхччю" (1923), "‡ыхэѕ ‡ушях=ёъѕ¦" (1927), "+Ёрсхыыѕ" (1932), "¦юыёрыштѕ¦ цхэЁшэѕ" (1935), "¦шЁэ№щ фхэі" (1936). "-р¶эѕ" (1937) and "-¦сюті -рэрш" (1940).

It is a lot of reasons, possibly, deeply hidden in creativity hiding places, have caused occurrence of such accurate line of demarcation which has divided the biography of Strauss for two periods: symphonic and opera. Strauss with amazing naiveté speaks on the eve of a premiere of the third opera: "Ршь¶юэшёхёъшх poems do not deliver to me any ѕфютюыіё=тш ". However in the course of formation of this line of demarcation a main role the reasons played much more serious, than loss of interest to symphonic poems. Strauss has achieved tops of fame as the composer - follower Wagner and Sheet and as the conductor making triumphal trips on capitals of Europe. These concert tours it is possible to define as "ухэхЁрыіёъшх reviews of symphonic garrisons ьшЁр". But at some instant new tendencies began to affect. Loud expressions of delight still sounded, still the press by inertia names Strauss "яхЁт№ь the composer ьшЁр" but the success temperature already goes down. In the European musical life all spreads interest to "эютющ ьѕч№ъх" more distinctly; to Russian school - to Musorgsky, Roman-korsakovu, to Borodino, to Frenchmen - to Debussy, Ravel, Djuka, to Bartoku, to already appeared on musical arena in 1910 to Stravinsky, and after it and to Prokofiev. Here then Strauss grows cold to a symphonic genre and "ьюфѕышЁѕх=" in an opera direction.

Having paid a tribute to Wagner in "+ѕэ=Ёрьх" - the first opera which has been chilly enough met by public, Strauss causes a storm in the opera world of the beginning of the century "Ррыюьххщ". These are years when Oscar Uajld becomes one of the most fashionable writers, and estestven, at least therefore, interest to an opera on a plot of its drama. But "Ррыюьх " excites also that part of public which does not show hobby for creativity of the refined master of the English literature. It is involved with the bloody plot connected rannehristianskoj by an epoch, the atmosphere sated with a sensuality surrounding the heroine of an opera, Salomeju.

By order of the tsar of the Tyrant prophet Iokanaan is seized and concluded in a vault. Salomeja wishes to look at the prisoner, but the chief of guards, Narrabot, refuses to it it, referring to the strict order of the Tyrant. Knowing that Narrabot passionately loves it, Salomeja tempts with its sight, movements and achieves the - from a dungeon deduce the prophet. For the first time for all life of Salomeej the desire to kiss the man seizes. Salomeja stretches to it hands, but the prisoner of the Tyrant pushes away a tsarevna. Not in forces to take out this scene, Narrabot is pinned up. Salomeja, possibly, at all has not noticed the body which has fallen to her feet of the chief of guards. And when the Tyrant comes nearer to it and asks to execute for it dance of seven coverlets, Salomeja lays down a condition: it agrees, if the Tyrant carries out its any desire. The tyrant swears. Having dumped from itself last coverlet, Salomeja finishes dance. "+юыютѕ Ђюърэррэр!" - she speaks to the Tyrant. Even he, under ancient legends bathing in blood, - even it shudders. But Salomeja is relentless. The executioner stretches it a head executed, and she sticks into dead lips. The Tyrant captured by horror throws to the guard: "Лсхщ=х this цхэЁшэѕ!" On marble steps the corpse of Salomei falls...

In evolution of an opera a place "Ррыюьхш" - on a neo-romanticism junction of tracks, verizma and an expressionism. Intensity of an orchestral fabric, simfonizm starts from the first; sensual ekzaltatsija and affinity to naturalism make related "Ррыюьх¦" with Puccini's creative principles, Maskani, Leonkavallo; at last the-gloomy, condensed atmosphere of action in the musical expression associates with receptions ekspressionistskogo letters... It is necessary to add that the opera lasting about two hours goes without interruption.

Today we perceive it differently, than spectators of the beginning of the century. Less all us is excited with pathological passions of heroes. Huge expressive force and the originality of music concluded in it brightness of feelings, making the integral line of opera classics involves.

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