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Paul Hindemith / Paul Hindemit (1895 - 1963)

In the tragical list of representatives of the German and Austrian art intelligency, compelled to leave the native land after Hitler's arrival to the power, the name of Paulja Hindemita, younger contemporary Riharda Strauss appears also. It has shared Bertolta Brecht, Henry and Thomas Mannov, Anna Zegers's fate, Lyons Fejhtvangera, Arnold Shyonberga, Stefana Zweig and thousand others.

Paul Hindemit belonged to number of the largest musicians of Germany, to that generation, whose creative formation has coincided in the course of time preparations and the First World War beginnings. The native of a working environment, it early became on a way of the professional musician as the violinist, the pianist, the drummer of orchestral ensembles at country restaurants, dansingah, beer. Here he of the young man has learnt a music wrong side. And from here, from the world of musical banality, has directed in the big art. In two solid conservatories (Darmstadt and Frankfurt) it has got education. Rate of its musical development is prompt. At the age of 20 years he is a leader of the Frankfurt opera theatre. In ten years the Berlin Higher musical school invites him to take a place of the professor of a composition.

/ Paul Hindemith Hindemit belonged to Paul Hindemit to number of universally presented musicians which cannot limit itself to narrow specialisation. The outstanding viola player always afflicted with creative greed, it together with Turkish violinist Liko Amarom has headed a string quartet, from the beginning of 20th years won world popularity. Hindemit - one of organizers of the well-known festivals of modern music in Donaueshingene and Baden-Baden. A lot of energy it is given conducting, pedagogics, is musical-critical and scientific activity. But composer calling gets the best of all. In young years Hindemit, as well as its many coevals, tests Brams, Gugo Volf, Mahler's influences. In first two quartets, Cheerful simfoniette, the Dancing suite, appeared in the early twenties, echoes of romanticism leaving from arena sound. But not it is a general line of its creativity.

In Hindemite - the artist and the person - were combined rational, a mathematical warehouse thinking with phenomenal "т№ёшёыш=хыіэющ =х§эшъющ" necessary at the decision of challenges of polyphonic music, and thus - intellectual temperament of high heat. In it the creative energy not knowing barriers realising the most unusual, unexpected themes, plots, genres in music of the broadest amplitude is put: from juicy sketches and household dances to deep philosophical concepts in symphonies and operas; from naive nurseries pesok to improbably concentrated thought in its cycle "Ludus tonalis" ("ЂуЁр =юэрыіэюё=хщ") which with the equal right it is possible to name both excellent music and the scientific treatise.

The Person, the thinker and the musician of the XX-th century, Hindemit yours faithfully and constant interest concerned great classics, especially to Bach, Beethoven, Mozart, Brams. "…р§шрэё=тю" Hindemita is "фхё =і чряютхфхщ" not only aesthetics, but also ethics of its creativity. The composer of an inexhaustible creative potentiality creating without interruption, almost without pauses, product of different genres, it possessed really phenomenal composer technics and enormous work capacity. Rumpled to whom from masters of music of different centuries with the big basis it is possible to carry definition "ъюьяючш=юЁ-тшЁ=ѕюч" than to Paulju Hindemitu.

We Will result only one example of its composer skill: in 1927 he has written an one-act opera-sketch "Кѕфр and юсЁр=эю" which plot is constructed in such a manner that, having reached the culminations - murders of the heroine, action, step by step, comes back to the beginning. As music is written also. She can be played from left to right and from right to left. It is difficult to deny that the such creative acrobatics has especially formal character. But what intellectual pressure demands such "¶юЁьрышчь"!

The masterly technics of Hindemit does not subordinate from the outside of the taken theoretical concept. Least it the doctrinaire. One of the most typical properties of musical thinking of Hindemita, - it "цхыхчэр  sound ыюушър" discipline of the thought consistently developing any melodic, harmonious, tembralnuju idea.

In years when one of fundamental bases of music, the tonality, was exposed to attacks from different bases, appeared the become obsolete concept braking "яюых= in схчсЁхцэюё=і" Hindemit creates the harmonous, scientifically well-founded system directed not on destruction of a tonality, and on enrichment by its prisoners in her "ЁхёѕЁёрьш". In this system Hindemit shows simultaneously and respect for classical traditions, and aspiration of their interpretation from the point of view of musical language and receptions of composition HH of century.

In 20th years in products of mainly tool Hindemit distinctly shows the lines of neoclassicism affecting in clearness, the underlined clearness of constructions, vigorous movement of sound streams which are weaved into a difficult polyphonic fabric; in prevalence diatonichnosti melodic drawings. This period concern it is masterful the written Second and Third string quartets (1921, 1922), the Concert for an orchestra (1925), a dancing pantomime "-хьюэ" (1924), an opera "-рЁфшыі ъ".

On crisis of the first and second half 20th years he creates a cycle from seven compositions united by the general name "-рьхЁэр  ьѕч№ър". In it the new trends receding from a neoclassical canon are already clearly felt. "-рьхЁэр  ьѕч№ър" designated by serial numbers, amazes with riches and a variety of tool imagination: № 1 it is written for ensemble from 12 tools, including a piano, a harmonium, a considerable quantity of the shock; № 2-type of a piano concert with participation of 12 tools treated as ensemble of soloists; № 3 - violonchelnyj a concert with widely developed polyphony of ten tools; № 4 - a five-private violin concert with touch becoming fashionable (1925) a jazz; № 5 - a concert for an alto and wind instruments with violoncello and contrabass addition; № 6 - the most gentle score with the the soloist rare tool - viol d'amur - against string; at last, № 7 concert for body with a chamber orchestra.

In many links of this "ьрыющ encyclopaedias chamber ьѕч№ъш" tendencies of grotesque, satire, extravagance affect. They go from the new trends generated by difficult psychological atmosphere of Germany of 20th years, the country bearing burden of the contribution, the reparations, paying off for criminally untied and lost First World War. Because of catastrophic inflation, hunger, unbelief, moral opustoshennosti these years in Austria and Germany deeply pessimistic art of an expressionism is born. Not only in separate links "-рьхЁэющ ьѕч№ъш" but also in the piano stand "1922" a drawing picture of the night city filled with a gloom and horror, and in a number of other compositions of different genres are felt ekspressionistskie tendencies, with overexcitement typical for them, clamorousness or, on the contrary, convulsive zastylostju and prostration.

In 20th years Hindemit addresses and to other genres. Here and a bloody melodrama "Лсшщчр, hope цхэЁшэ" and a sketch mentioned already "Кѕфр and юсЁр=эю" and "-ютюё=ш фэ " an opera devoted to sensational divorce case, with details in the spirit of the American fiction, up to an aria of the heroine sitting in a bath in clouds of soapsuds. Being amused, Hindemit enters into an orchestral fabric "-ютюё=хщ фэ " a typewriter under which hasty rhythm the chorus reads official documents.

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