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Paul Hindemith / Paul Hindemit (a part II)

Shag Hindemita in art so beads also is purposeful that about it there is no saying: the composer, searching ways. And still he searches for them. Possibly, because, that creativity of Hindemita, even at separate deviations from especially serious highway, aside kabaretnoj operas "-ютюё=ш фэ " or too an one-act kickshaw for theatre of puppets "-ѕ°--ѕ°ш" it is given genres strictly academic, - its searches do not carry sensational nature traces. In it the consciousness of ethical responsibility of the composer before a society, before history gradually grows ripe. For the first time this idea sprouts in rather early (1923) opus, a vocal cycle on verses of Rilke "гш=шх ¦рЁшш" in which through mistiko-religious covers inhabited lines of human feelings, reflexions, aspirations to comprehend eternal questions of a life, death, true appear. Hindemit highly appreciated this work and came back to it twice, creating new editions, including one - orchestral.

The Rights one of researchers, speaking: "¤юё=ш everything created by talent of Hindemita, despite a variety of genres of its creativity and the frequent reference to theatre, can be carried to area simfonizma XX тхър".

The creative history of two operas of Hindemita and two symphonies on the same themes can be One of the most weighty acknowledgement of this point of view: "+ѕфюцэшъ ¦р=шё" and "+рЁьюэш  ьшЁр".

The First of them marks arrival of Hindemita to a new stage when the composer purely formal problems, let least carry away the most difficult and perspective. The gloom approaching to Germany from the moment of an establishment of fascist dictatorship, causes in Hindemite as in all progressive artists, requirement to protect culture from barbarity, to oppose to violence and brutality high ideas of humanism, to show tragical destiny of the artist in the conditions of oppression and terror. In 1934 the opera "+ѕфюцэшъ ¦р=шё" is written; (the name transcription "¦р=шё" Here is resulted; by tradition. Other transcription - Matias) on own libretto is possible also. The same year there was also a symphony. The hero of an opera and the symphony - really existing person, artist Matias Nojthardt (1460-1528) known also by name of Matias from Grjunvalda. The first of seven pictures of an opera gives a fair idea about its ideological orientation. In the solar spring morning Matias works over an ornament of church gallery. Suddenly gate of a church court yard are run in by the wounded leader of the risen peasants - Shvalb, with it - his daughter Regina. And when Shvalb comes to the senses, Matias listens to its uneasy story about oppressions, chinimyh the mighty of this world over peasants. Matias gives Shvalbu of the horse, and that runs. When the pursuit rushes into a church court yard, the artist safely says that has helped to run to the leader of country revolt.

Hindemit addresses here to a method of a historical allegory: in a plot concerning by XVI century, it recreates the pictures associating with the gloomy validity of fascist Germany.

On an opera material the symphony in three parts, on a triptych of Matiasa from Grjunevalda, decorating an altar of the Izengejmsky monastery is written also: "-юэчхЁ= рэухыют" "¤юыюцхэшх in уЁюс" and "Ђёъѕ°хэшх St. +э=юэш ". For a basis of I part the overture to an opera which theme reminds an ancient German song "¤ю¦= three рэухыр" is taken;. Its tune surrounded with a dense texture of polyphonic voices, forms the music filled with energy and plasticity. In II part against zasurdinennyh the string the mournful melody of a flute as though mourning leaving of the person from an assembly of the live appears. For last part the composer has selected free rapsodicheskuju the form including almost speech intonations of tools and in summary - solemnly and joyfully sounding "+ыышыѕщ " in the given context important not cult exclamation, and conviction in light celebration over tmoju.

The Opera "+ѕфюцэшъ ¦р=шрё" has been put in Zurich in 1937 and, unlike the symphony which have become by one of often executed products, in repertoire it was not kept.

The Second opera and the symphony - "+рЁьюэш  ьшЁр" in which centre the figure of the great astronomer and mathematician Johann Kepler (1571-1630), the author of the well-known treatise "+рЁьюэш  ьшЁр" rises; the movement which have opened the major laws of planets. But Hindemita are excited with Kepler's not so much discoveries, how many its destiny: poverty, illness, sight loss, punishment of churchmen of his mother accused of sorcery. Excites Hindemita business of a life of the great scientist and the person which high thoughts are resisted by darkness of bearing malice ignorance. This image gets for Hindemita the generalised value in the light of the events which have shaken mankind of the XX-th century.

The thoughts, pathetics of a worship for Johann Kepler Hindemit's scientific and vital feat has transferred in the symphony "+рЁьюэш  ьшЁр" - for the first time executed in Basel in 1951 and in an opera, six years later put in Munich. Carried away by idea of total harmony of movement of heavenly bodies, Hindemit extends it and to the phenomena, most for it relatives: "-рцх in nichtozhnejshih musical elements we feel display of the same forces which actuate the most remote star =ѕьрээюё=ш". As often we meet desire that of one other composer to prove the music any philosophical concept. It to very few people is possible...

With reference to "+рЁьюэшш ьшЁр" G.Shneerson fairly speaks: "-ы  that to feel all relevancy and to express force of this music, at all there is no necessity to be familiar with foggy mystical program lying in its basis. In this case composer Hindemit gets the best of Hindemitom - ¶шыюёю¶юь".

For a designation of parts of the symphony "+рЁьюэш  ьшЁр" Hindemit has addressed to Boetsiju, the philosopher of VI century who have given such classification of musical art: Musica instrumentalis, Musica humana and Musica mundana. These terms - "¦ѕч№ър шэё=Ёѕьхэ=ют" "Охыютхёхёър  ьѕч№ър" and "¦ѕч№ър ьшЁют" Hindemit named three parts of the symphony. It is easy to imagine that "+рЁьюэш  ьшЁр" less all an opera plot. And, though Hindemit has thoroughly worked at the libretto, has involved materials of the biography of Kepler who has developed the doctrine of Polish astronomer Kopernik, the opera dramatic art has appeared more close to concert, than to a theatrical genre. And still an episode when the dying Kepler hears music of heavenly spheres, "урЁьюэш¦ ьшЁр" leaves the strongest impression.

The Symphonic variant lasting about 35 minutes, - music deep, ennobled, fine, In І parts - a vigorous theme, moving on quarts, is remembered by the prompt youthful angularity. In II part there are the smooth melodic courses opposing "ьѕч№ъѕ ёхыютхёхёъѕ¦" "ьѕч№ъх шэё=Ёѕьхэ=ют". At last, in the ending one follows another twenty one variation, forming certain "яюыш¶юэшёхёъѕ¦ +рыръ=шъѕ" symbolising "урЁьюэш¦ ё¶хЁ" "урЁьюэш¦ ьшЁр". The final mi-major chord powerfully sounds, all moving apart the borders as if from depths of the Universe the sparkling sound stream marking a celebration of light flows more widely.

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