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Leos Janacek / Leosh Janachek (1854-1928)

Every year the name of Czech composer Leosha Janachka even more often appears on opera and concert posters, and in it it is possible to see one of the most important displays of a fair sentence of history. JAnachku was for fifty when, huddling in a Moravian remote place gabsburgskoj Austro-Hungary, it passed from hope to despair, again looking through pages of the scores. As about unrealizable happiness he dreamt to hear them in real, instead of in imagined sounding.

Now to everyone who knows music of Janachka, clearly that its place - near to Sour cream and Dvorak. But what long and difficult way there should pass the author "+хэѕ¶№" to rise on this honourable pedestal.

Leosh Janachek / Leos Janacek. V.Asafev wrote about it: "¤ю to the age - Leosh Janachek was born in 1854 - it was hardly probable not the senior among the brightest phenomena of just passing time of flowering of the Czech music, and on tireless aspiration to twice not to go into the same step at a creative ascension, it to the death managed to be in number ьюыюф№§".

The Author of nine operas, sets of choral, symphonic, chamber products, cantatas; the tireless collector of national songs and dances; the musician-scientist who has published some of the most interesting researches about a folk music, speech intonations, creativity psychology; the journalist, whose articles, left the separate edition, have made solid volume in four hundred pages, Leosh Janachek belonged to descendants of that cohort of figures of national revival who in Czechia named "сѕфш=хы ьш". For they have laid down for themselves the aim - to wake in whom the feeling of national pride has fallen asleep.

Janachek occurred from a family, some which generations were teachers. And in the conditions of the Czech culture the teacher who was not practising music, - the phenomenon the rare. Eleven years it became Pavel Krzhizhkovskogo's pupil, the formed musician, the passionate collector of Moravian folklore. For this musician process of constant dialogue with national creativity was absolutely estestven as it was natural to inherit love to this tool from parents-organists.

Here, in the centre of Moravia, in a city of Brno, Janachek begins the office activity upon termination of a pedagogical educational institution: it becomes the teacher, continuing traditions of the grandfather, the father and mother. Dreams of the further music education remain dreams for many long years. Only in 1878 it manages to be pulled out in the world "сюыі°ющ ьѕч№ъш" to Leipzig and Vienna. Before it for one year has passed a two-year course of game on body in the Prague school of organists, In imagination he saw itself(himself) in Petersburg in Anton Rubinshtejna's class. In a reality he comprehends secrets "ъюьяючш=юЁёъющ ъѕ§эш" in German conservatories. In this incomplete dvuhletie, spent abroad, Janachek completely systematises the knowledge.

The Life has demanded from the returned home young musician not matrikulov and diplomas, and practical, essential musical activity. It also was gave to it with all heat peculiar to it. From the end of 70th years it supervises over the Moravian singing society, ljubovno studying with chorus and soloists Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven's music, the Czech classics - Frantishka Michi, Joseph Myslivechka, and near to them - music Antonina Dvorak, only recently begun the career. Will pass some years, and Janachek will find the person to whom will entrust the most secret plans in Dvorak, whose opinion will consider conclusive. Like Sour cream, like Dvorak, Janachek devotes a considerable part of time of is musical-organising activity, understanding, as it is important to reflect in music of feeling of national pride, the protest; as it is important to bring up shots of domestic musicians. In 1881 Janachek creates Organnuju school in Brno. About forty years it stretch supervised over it, brought up here not only organists, but also musicians of wider profile: conductors, regents, composers. On the basis of school Janachka in 1919 the Conservatory, in 1947 reorganised in Academy of arts of a name of Janachka has grown.

Huge employment could complicate only creativity process, but not kill requirement to create music because it there was a requirement invincible. JAnachek was the born composer.

Earliest of compositions known to us are dated by the end of 70th years: a six-private Suite for a string band, "Ђфшыыш " for the same structure; "Гфхэъшэ№ трЁшрчшш" for a piano, obviously, connected as shows their name, with Zdenkoj Schultz, the wife who has become soon of the composer. In these compositions, as well as in choral "+ёхээхщ яхёэх" on Yaroslav Varhlitskogo's verses, in "-ѕьъх" for a violin and pianos are appreciable typical lines of the composer-romanticist, going a path laid by Schubert, Mendelson, Brams, but thus keeping lines of national originality.

Soon enough specific features Czech, Moravian, lashskoj music get the best of traditions of German romanticists. The meeting with the collector of Moravian folklore, outstanding scientist Frantishkom Bartoshem, soon passed in friendship becomes the important event of the creative biography of Janachka. Each of them has found in other the adherent and, having united the efforts, in 1890 they have let out the collection including 174 national tunes. Attaching due significance to records and ordering of national melodies, Janachek, at all enthusiasm for this important issue, realised that is more important than all for it the music composition. At a crossroads of two highways of its creative way - folkloristskoj and composer - in 1887 there is an opera "ПрЁър". Its plot roots leaves in national legends about the Czech maidens-voitelnitsah storing customs of matriarchy, inherited from princess Libushe, the first ruler of Czechia. On a legend theme about Sharke - so call one of the main heroines of an epopee about the Czech amazons, - it is written a lot of music, including - a symphonic poem of Sour cream, the opera of Zdenka Fibiha (1850-1900) which have appeared in ten years after an opera of Janachka. A three-act opera of Janachka - the first its large product. Written to traditions of a romantic opera, not without influence of a dramaturgic outline of some episodes "-юыічр эшсхыѕэур" with an emotional elation, an abundance choral and ansamblevyh episodes. "ПрЁър" entirely is based on a melodic basis of the Czech folklore. Alas, with "ПрЁъш" the list of compositions of Janachka, for decades ground in its working room begins.

The Following opera, one-act - "-рёрыю Ёюьрэр" has passing value. But work on it has reduced the composer with writer Gabrieloj Prejssovoj who has deeply studied a life, a life, customs of Moravian village. JAnachek has excitedly read it "фхЁхтхэёъѕ¦ фЁрьѕ" "+хэѕ¶р" also has immediately lighted up desire to write an opera. So work on the product which has pulled out the author from obscurity has begun.

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