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Leos Janacek / Leosh Janachek (a part III)

In the early nineties Janachek creates ballet representation under J.Gerbena's libretto which full name sounds so: "рръю° Rakochi. A picture of Moravian Slovakia with original dances and songs. In I action for an orchestra and mixed §юЁр". As a rare exception in the biography of Janachka, "рръю° рръюёш" some times with success has been shown at the Prague theatre in 1891.

The Composer was excited constantly with opera plans: one did not fall outside the limits creative dreams; others were embodied in the sketches made any, to one composer a clear, musical stenograph; the third were lead up To the developed sketches and, at last, the fourth found full end in the score.

It is interesting that two ended and two neoterminated operas of Janachka are directly connected with the Russian literature. First two - "-р=  -рсрэютр" (on "+Ёючх" Ostrovsky) and "Ђч dead фюьр" (on Dostoevsky); second two - "+ээр -рЁхэшэр" and "гштющ =Ёѕя". In circulation Leosha Janachka to the Russian literature is not present anything surprising. It is one of expressions of its love to Russia, to Russian culture, to Russian which it has studied. Leosh Janachek went to Russia twice, with delight listened attentively to music of Russian speech, enjoyed ringing streams of Russian choral singing. Glinka's music, Dargomyzhsky, "ъѕёъшё=ют" Tchaikovsky constantly fed creative imagination of the composer. Besides the named products on Russian plots, by Janachkom it is written symphonic "-рчрёюъ" from M.Veveritsovoj's tune; "Рърчър" for a violoncello and a piano it is inspired "Рърчъющ about the tsar …хЁхэфхх" Zhukovsky; the First quartet of Janachka is cast "-ЁхщчхЁютющ ёюэр=ющ" Tolstoy; At last, one of the higher achievements of the composer - the symphonic rhapsody "КрЁрё …ѕыіср".

Among many certificates of influence of Russian culture on Janachka it is possible to specify and in a particular interest shown by it to an opera genre, as it is known, especially valued classics of Russian music. The nine operas of Janachek has composed between 1887 and 1927 years, in that fortieth anniversary to which middle the modernism all began to interfere more persistently in this genre. Remaining true realistic traditions of musical theatre, Janachek like principles of critical realism more and more. On this way arises "+хэѕ¶р" then "-р=  -рсрэютр" (1921), and behind them and other operas. In each of them the composer is not limited to a truthful embodiment of characters. Passionately being indignant in one, ironically deriding in another, satirically convicting of the third, it exposes imperfection of the world in which the inequality and other social defects which have risen against the person, love, honour reign...

Speaking about "-р=х -рсрэютющ". V.Asafev specifies on "шсёхэютёъшх ёхЁ=№" shown in Ostrovsky's heroin thanks to music of Janachka. Whether a lack it? No, this vision of an image. Performed by Sandro Moisi Protasov from "гштюую =Ёѕяр" undoubtedly, was other, than it was written by Tolstoy, than it was played and play Russian scenes. Possibly, Kola Brjunon in music Kabalevsky is allocated by lines which in something do not coincide with an image rollanovskogo masters from Klamsi. Hardly Janachka would wait good luck, select it a way "Ёѕёш¶шърчшш" the melodic language.

In "-р=х -рсрэютющ" indestructible there was a dark kingdom of Kabanihi and Wild though many household details have not entered into an opera. Having kept an ominous background of a kingdom of fanatic cruelty and darkness, the composer has weaved on it a captivating image Kateriny. It has charged the basic melodic drawing to a flute with its pure, pastoral timbre. The big monologue of Kateriny and two scenes with Boris can be carried to the best pages of opera lyrics of our century.

Continuing conversation about "Ёѕёёъющ ышэшш" in opera creativity of Janachka, we will address to its last opera, - to which premiere it has not lived, - "Ђч dead фюьр" (it is ended in 1928. Janachek named it "ёхЁэющ юяхЁющ". Would be naive to deny that in last opera opus of Janachka atmosphere of improbable intensity, suffering, horror reigns. Whether there could be it other in "ьхЁ=тюь фюьх"? But sense and pathos of music not in it, not in ekspressionistskom a condensation of bloody paints. Music is penetrated by the highest humanism, sincere heat, aspiration to warm with breath of sympathy, empathy of everyone who pined in Omsk unbearable prison. Not without reason to the opera of Japachek has selected an epigraph: "- each creation there is a spark сюцш ". With identical force characters main and minor are embodied. But two images - Alexander Gorjanchikov and Luka Kuzmich, on an opera - it Filka of Frosts, in an especial way grasp tragical pathos of the truth.

In work over "¦хЁ=т№ь фюьюь" JAnachka has carried away thought on a violin concert. But soon he has felt impossibility to get rid of delusion of images of the novel of Dostoevsky, has noticed that in spite of himself they get into this score. Then it skondensiroval a material of a concert also has made of it simfonicheski the generalised introduction in an opera.

The Amplitude of opera genres and plots at Janachka is very great: from the epos and tragedy to a comic opera. It would be strange, if the composer has passed by satire and a fantasy, so typical for the Czech art.

The Opera "¤ѕ=х°хё=тш  the sir …Ёюѕёър" (1920) JAnachek renders tribute to a satirical genre, taking for a dramaturgic basis the story of the classic of the Czech literature of Svatopluka of the Czech. The header hero of an opera, Matej Brouchek - the typical inhabitant, the numbed reactionary. A being stupid, vainglorious, he does not understand, how very pretty coquette Malinka could prefer to it, to the man of high position, the poor artist on a surname Smeared. Carried away by dreams, Brouchek appears on the Moon. But also here there is no that order of which the narrow-minded soul of the hero dreams. Malinka also Smeared, in new shape, with lunar names last to each other the same as on the earth; selenit as well as earth dwellers, do not show respect to sir Brouchku. Having bridled Pegasa, Brouchek comes back to the earth. It gets on our old planet to the heat gusitskih wars of XV century. To risk itself for the sake of the native land - employment improper for Brouchka. He prefers to betray the native land. Sentenced for change to death, Brouchek manages to run and at will "ьр°шэ№ тЁхьхэш" It appears... In a XIX-th century. Here again it is waited too by contempt and derision for sir Brouchek was, is and will be the inutile inhabitant.

Over this opera of Janachek worked long. Having begun it in 1908, he finished last pages of the score only in 1917. "¤ѕ=х°хё=тш  the sir …Ёюѕёър" have been shown on the Prague scene in three years. Entertaining of a plot, masterly recitatives, wit of characteristics, vivacity and freshness of orchestral comments at riches of tool paints - nothing could distract from the basic sense of product - derisions obyvatelshchiny, repeatedly getting a pas an edge of a feather of such masters of satire, as Svatopluk the Czech, Yaroslav Gashek, Karelian Capek. After "¤ѕ=х°хё=тш  the daddy …Ёюѕёър" near to them by right has taken a place and Leosh Janachek.

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