"+хэѕ¶р" or "‡х ярфёхЁшчр" - a social drama. It is written hotly, of it is passionately convicted angrily. But Prejssova has not avoided set of naturalistic details in obrisovke a life, in disclosing of the sincere world of heroes. JAnachek Prejssovoj interferes in work and achieves creation of the expressive libretto with accurate dramaturgic structure.
An opera Scene of action - Moravian village in mountains. Action time - the XIX-th century end. Two stepbrothers - Shteva and Latsa - have grown fond of Jenufu, the stepdaughter church storozhihi. The girl prefers Shteve then Latsa in a jealousy attack will wound its knife in the person. When Jeiufa becomes mother, storozhiha hides its and its child, rescuing them from a rumour, from a shame. Despite all arrangements, Shteva refuses to marry the girl whom have disgraced. The rural Philanderer has had time to woo the rich bride. Having lulled Jenufu a somnolent potion, the stepmother carries away the child and throws it in the river. Jenufe when that comes to the senses, she says that the child has died. Time does the. Latsa still loves Jenufu, and she agrees to marry it. In day of their wedding when the house storozhihi is full parodu, come running pastushonok tells that under river ice the corpse of the child is found. Church storozhiha admits the crime. Bride Shtevy in horror renounces the groom. Vital accidents pull together Latsu and Jenufu even more.
Such is the subject scheme of an opera. The composer with conviction followed the basic idea: not to admit in music of sentimentality and melodramatizma. To it freely owning secrets of the melodic letter, it would be easy to fill music ёырфъючтѕёшхь" to create, as it liked to be expressed Dargomyzhsky, "ыіё=шт№х for an ear ьхыюфшш" it avoided it and has avoided.
Long before work over "+хэѕ¶ющ" it was grasped by thought on the musical nature of speech intonations. In its notebooks there were hasty records, "чрЁшёютъш" features of pronouncing of separate words, the whole phrases, the exclamations, brought on a musical paper. This experience has scarred all its composer activity, but especially brightly it has affected in "+хэѕ¶х". In music of this opera some plans are clearly distinguishable: household songs and dances (rekrutskaja a song of I action, wedding chorus III and in the same actions - dances); monologues and the ensembles constructed on speech intonations, taken not naturalistically, and it is very talented "Ёрёях=№§" paternal they have got force of musical influence, нe having lost and speech expressiveness. The orchestra role, especially in drama episodes, and them in "+хэѕ¶х" is great; naturally, it is a lot of. Especially impresses a monologue storozhihi before a crime.
Whether Knew Janachek Musorgsky by then when began to write "+хэѕ¶ѕ"? Music answers this question in the affirmative. From under a feather of not recognised composer who has broken besides habitual norms "юяхЁэюё=ш" the letter which have addressed to a sharp manner, product of huge force of social accusation and simultaneously - huge force of art influence, product, true innovative was born. Therefore it has made negative impression upon an is complacent-liberal management of the Prague theatre, as a result of rejected "+хэѕ¶ѕ".
In creative accident the most severe stroke of bad luck has fallen upon Janachka - death of the daughter, the girl of rare beauty and rare sincere advantages. Before Janachek has lost hotly favourite son. Children have been named by Russian or as spoke Janachek, "яѕ°ъшэёъшьш шьхэрьш" - Olga and Vladimir. Only neoborimaja will to live, to creativity, participation in struggle for national clearing of Czechia from gabsburgskogo an eagle have not allowed to the talented musician to incline a head and to give way to despair.
Echoes of event of these black years are audible in a piano cycle "¤ю grown =Ёюях". In it fifteen plays. And everyone not simply carries the program name, and shows product with deeply realistic maintenance. In this sense the piano cycle of Janachka reminds "-рЁ=шэъш with т№ё=ртъш" Musorgsky.
We Will recollect some plays of this cycle. Here a sad nocturne under the name "-р°ш тхёхЁр" - music as in autumn become silent and thoughtful; here absolutely short Pole with the well-aimed name "¤ющфхь=х тьхё=х"; here a live sketch of two chattering with animation girls in the play named "+хсх=рыш, as ырё=юёъш" and here dialogue: hotly insisting voice of the girl proving something and dissatisfied, sharp intonations of the young man - this play is named "-шъръ not ѕсхфш°і".
Hidden, and more often obvious programmnost it is typical for different genres of tool music of Janachka. Its two-private piano sonata a mi-flat a minor is connected with tragical event on October, 1st, 1905 when the Austrian soldiers have shot the participant of demonstration, worker Frantishka Pavlika. I part of a sonata carries the name "¤Ёхфёѕтё=тшх" II - "РьхЁ=і".
The Social subjects constantly excite Janachka, the person of the impulsive, courageous, active participant of national-liberation movement. JAnachek is not silent, when the daughter of miner Marichka Magdanova commits suicide from fear before police. The Composer-citizen, it writes on this theme a choral poem about tragedy of lawlessness and poverty of a miner's family. He raises a voice in protection silezskih the workers struggling against violent onemechivanija and then from under a feather of Janachka the choral drama "Рхьіфхё = =№ё ё". is born
It is easy to understand that the reasons of ignoring, hushing up of creativity of one of the most outstanding composers of Czechia are inseparable from the general political situation of the slavic state, the slavic people entering and structure notorious "ыюёъѕ=эюую юфх ыр" monarchy Gabsburgov.
Thirst of the creative response to events public and private life leads time and again to Janachka to creation of products of autobiographical character. The opera "Рѕфіср" became one of them; on own libretto with which creation to it helped Feodor Bartoshova and Camilla Urvalkova. In an image of the hero of an opera, composer Zhivnogo, the author has deduced itself and has told in belletrizovannoj to the form about events of the life
In the course of time at Janachka the is distinct-individual manner of the letter, the melodic language with refined rhythmics and riches ladovyh the structures following from national sources is developed; its harmonious thinking also searches new ways, "яхЁхъЁ№тр " achievements of romantic harmony, it leans on ladovuju the folk music nature.
Independent, writing without thinking about norms and the dogmas approved by criticism, it is guided only by of what it is convinced up to the end. Simply and short he speaks about the "ёшьтюых тхЁ№": "Ї I adhere to roots of a life of our people, therefore I grow and not юё=ѕяы¦ёі". Creatively having realised pesenno-dancing national turns, Janachek writes two cycles - Lashsky dances and Ganatsky dances. Into the first enter: Age-old, Blessed, Dymak, the Second Age-old, Cheljadensky and Files; in the second: the Aunt, the Pigeon, Toporik, Kolomyjka, the Hemp, the Three tovachovskaja, the Small horn, Road, the Cuckoo and Three. It is not surprising that bright figurativeness and plasticity of this music have generated thoughts on its scenic interpretation...
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