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Karol Szymanowski / Karol Shimanovsky (1882-1937)

Imja Karol Shimanovskogo has become history of the Polish music as one of the most considerable after Chopin as a name of the composer, whose creativity became level with the most interesting phenomena of a musical life of our century. Interest to its music has arisen literally from the first steps when in a beginning of the century there was in Warsaw a twenty years' young man, the native of a deaf Ukrainian province. It has amazed the Warsaw musical arbitrators with a taste and culture subtlety, talent of the products brought on their court. Music Shimanovsky has not caused disputes, even two opinions. It was clear that it is very talented, and that its cradle had Chopin. But not only Chopin. Something guarded, disturbing sounded in nine small preludes; any new harmonies, istaivajushchie untold phrases, fragility of the form which so, hardly concerning the keyboard, also it was possible to inform to listeners. It went from Skryabin, whose early creativity too is cast by Chopin. Without connecting itself with conservatory, Shimanovsky became the pupil of the visible composer and teacher Zigmunda Noskovsky.

Karol Shimanovsky / Karol Szymanowski"¤Ёютшэчшрыіэюё=і" Shimanovsky was only nominal. He really was born and has grown in a deaf corner of Ukraine of that time, in an estate of Timoshovka, nearby to Elizavetgrada. But the house Shimanovsky has always been filled by music. Here the nearest related environment Shimanovsky: Gustav Nejgauz, his son Henry, memorable to each of us the amazing pianist and the teacher, daughter Natalia - too the pianist, brothers Felix, Zigmund and Stanislav Blumenfeldy, the brother and sister Shimanovsky - the pianist and the singer. In this circle of musicians several generation, studying at Gustav Nejgauza in game as a piano, and dews of Karol.

To Warsaw has arrived young, but the excellent musician who was intuitively guided in laws of musical thinking, requiring school, in streamlining of knowledge and in a management from outside the skilled and strict teacher - the composer. Such also was Noskovsky. Its tastes and liking did not fall outside the limits traditions of romantic music, and some harmonious "шчыш°хё=тр" on which its pupil ventured, it accepted with a high pedagogical step.

The Early period of creativity Shimanovsky is devoted almost exclusively chamber music - tool and vocal. In 1903-04 Shimanovsky writes larger opuses, sonatas - piano and violin, near to them - Variations on a theme of the Polish national song. In these products, no less than in romances on words of Kasprovicha, Berenta, Mitsinsky the hand of the master who have found the manner of the letter is felt already. In piano products constantly attracts attention refinement of coloristic treatment of the sonority, the refined invoice, the general press of a creative spontaneity.

Shimanovsky it is allocated by that special character trait which is constant, in any society does it "ьруэш=эющ ышёэюё=і¦". In the first Warsaw years it becomes the centre to which the talented musical youth gravitates. Violinist Pavel Kohansky and pianist Arthur Rubinshtejn, both only beginning the world career become closest friends Shimanovsky. In 1905 in Berlin Shimanovsky gets acquainted with Gzhegozhem Fitelbergom, the talented Polish conductor, the passionate propagandist of new music, violent admirer Riharda Strauss. The group of the young progressive musicians which have united under the name "¦юыюфр  Poland in ьѕч№ъх" is soon formed;. Fitelberg have entered Into it, Ruzhitsky, Sheljuto, Karlovich and Shimanovsky. Rubinshtejn gravitated To them and some more vysokoodarennyh the actors making a performing active "¦юыюфющ ¤юыі°ш".

Whether There was at this group an accurate aesthetic platform? Before to answer the brought attention to the question, we will address to some typical phenomena of a musical life of Poland of the XX-th century beginning.

Short of Stanislav Monjushko (1819-1872), the author of several outstanding opera scores and, first of all - "+рыіъш" posleshopenovskoe the fiftieth anniversary a little than has enriched the Polish musical culture. Chamber and symphonic music did not rise above mediocrity level. Diletantizm, and from here and durnovkusie reigned in many genres of creativity and ispolnitelstva. The new musical trends going from Russia, from the Mighty small group, from France - Debussy, Ravel - hardly reached a threshold of musical establishments and were absolutely ignored largely - and melkoshljahetskimi "ёрыюэрьш" - citadels of musical narrow-mindedness. The first of the Polish composers has responded to calls of time Mechislav Karlovich which have admired impressionists, but the basic creative tribute paying to neo-romanticism. It has passed a strong vocational school and was the unique Polish composer who has creatively apprehended receptions "фтѕ§ рш§рЁфют" - Wagner and Strauss and Skryabin's rebellious spirit. Its way on a symphonic platform was difficult because of reigning routine.

With such difficulties "¦юыюфр  ¤юыі°р" declares struggle. For the new Polish music which is not losing the national traditions, but not lagging behind achievements of music European! The slogan both a real platform was that. And the second - struggle for the present professionalism.
Group "¦юыюфр  Poland in ьѕч№ъх" it was very non-uniform. Fitelberg was engaged in the music composition off and on (though has written a bright symphonic poem "¤хёэі about Рюъюых" on Bitter); SHeljuto hardly overcame creative slackness; Ruzhitsky did not differ sequence of aesthetic views and aspirations and was typical eklektikom. But together, having in the centre such strong figure as Shimanovsky, - they made the impressive avant-guard struggling for musical progress of Poland.

In many works about Shimanovsky, its career divide into three stages-periods: "Ёюьрэ=шёхёъшщ" "шьяЁхёёшюэшё=ёъшщ" and "эрЁюфэ№щ". In any classification such it is difficult to avoid sketchiness, but in the given division the logic is. The first period comes to an end with the monumental composition - the Second symphony written in 1910. To it written the First (1907) was executed only once, in the beginning of spring of 1909. The author remained is extremely dissatisfied with the child, any more did not direct it on a platform and has refused to print the score. So, till now it remained in the manuscript. An another matter - the Second symphony. For the first time played under control of Fitelberga in 1911, it has won a strong place in repertoire. Its first part - the open declaration of neo-romanticism, with the bared expression of feelings, with difficult emotional implied sense. The variation form of the second part gives the chance to the composer to refract a melodic theme and last, sixth variation through many sides to treat as the introduction to the third, final part. Here, in the ending, the complex of difficult reflexions, disentangling of the dramaturgic knots connected with the previous parts is given. For the first time Shimanovsky acts fully armed with such solid polyphonic technics, having constructed the most complicated fugue in which it is developed five (!) those. But business not only in how the technical problem is solved. It is important, as it is organic, not "чрёѕ°штр " and keeping emotional heat of a thematic material, the composer results all design of the symphony to ideally logical end.

After the Concert overture (1905) and the Second symphony the name Shimanovsky becomes more and more known in the European countries. Oн represents itself as the pianist, executing own products, listens to the band music, частo driving about on capitals and other musical centres of Europe; some years live in Vienna, communicating with the largest musicians of the Austrian capital.

After tiresome trips and a nervous tension, it finds rest in native Timoshovke where friends gather. In the letter to 3. Jahimetsky, written in the summer of 1911, it is told about Arthur Rubinshtejna's five-week visit, coincided by stay in Timoshovke Henry Nejgauza and Gzhegozha Fitelberga. It Shimanovsky played the Second sonata for a piano. "+ср have been grasped х¦" - the author writes.

Here, in Timoshovke the plan of foreign tours with the concerts entirely devoted to music Shimanovsky was born.

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