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Ravel Maurice / Moris Ravel (1875 - 1937)

When speak about the French music of our century nearby name two names: Claude Debussy and Moris Ravel. It is natural, for, really, these two great composers have defined the most important tendencies of development of the French musical life from 80th years of a XIX-th century and to the middle of next century when the new tendencies substantially generated by disputes on a heritage of Debussy and Ravel, and sometimes and in the form of an original antithesis to their creativity began to be shown.

Antiromantic tendencies, so strongly pronounced Debussys in music of the central stage of its way, in sharper form were showed in Ravel's music.

Moris Ravel / Ravel Maurice the Great master of graphically accurate melodic constructions (we will recollect a theme of its ingenious Bolero!), the colourist who has created the scores to compete with which it is difficult to somebody (we will recollect its Spanish rhapsody, ballet "-р¶эшё and +ыю " "Н№урэъѕ" a choreographic poem "-рыіё"), Ravel has entered into use of music of the XX-th century harmonious language, much sharper, caustic, tart, than what the author "¤хыыхрёр and ¦хышчрэф№" has fascinated generation behind generation;.

It is masterful using infinite riches of juicy sound paints, Ravel with incomprehensible severity condemns the thought on sensual seduction by music. Even in the Bolero, even in "Н№урэъх" cast listovskimi rhapsodies, it does not give in to temptation to be forgotten, lose the control over movement of musical thought and to allow it to obey to needs of the heart. But here also there is this miracle when music, irrespective of will of the author, comes into contact to feelings of listeners, seizes their sincere world and conducts behind itself, with each step carrying away more and more.

One of researchers of modern French music, the author of the fundamental monography about Debussy - Stefan Jarotsinsky, asserts what to rank Ravel as an assembly of musicians-impressionists, not simply error, and an error scholastic. And nevertheless it is difficult to object to obvious signs of influence of Debussy on Ravel not only in an early time of its creativity, but even then, when Ravel "ё=ры on эюуш" also has created many products of high perfection. Ravel's musical youth passed those years when Debussy's name and its music were known to everyone who at least touched the French art.

Whether Ravel Could pass by such phenomenon how Debussy, and, being more youngly it for thirteen years, not to respond, not to give in to charms of its music, and, hence, and to influence of an impressionistic aesthetics? We will recollect the basic stages of formation of the creative person of Ravel.

He was born on March, 7th, 1875 in small town Sibur, near to the Spanish border, in the house in the parkway Nivell renamed into parkway Morisa Ravelja still during lifetime of the composer. A case, in the history of music the rare!

Ravel's Father - the Frenchman who was born in Switzerland, mother - the Basque. Whether from it Ravel has inherited love to the Spanish music, found expression in the whole series of compositions: from a modest vocalese "+рсрэхЁр" to symphonic scores of the Bolero, the Spanish rhapsody and an opera "Ђёярэёъшщ ёрё"?

By twelve years it has been already enough prepared to arrive in an elementary grade of the Parisian conservatory, and in fourteen - to become full "ё=ѕфхэ=юь".

Happens so, as Ravel gets to conservatories in "шёярэёъюх юъЁѕцхэшх": its teacher of a composition - Charles Berio - the aficionado of the Spanish art; Ravel's closest friend, Catalan Rikardo Vines - the pianist of the huge talent, ready without a break to play days music of the native land; both of them are Ravel and Vines - endure hobby for composer E.Shabrie. Under its influence there is one of Ravel's early piano plays - the Grotesque serenade (1893).

Formation of the person of Ravel passes in close contact to a family. The father - the engineer-inventor - imparts to the son love to mathematics and technics (till the end of a life Ravel will take a great interest in clockwork toys and even to design them). Engineer Ravel loves and knows music, the literature, is on friendly terms with people of art. It the habitue of cafe "-ют№х +¶шэ№" where atmosphere is sated by hot discussions about theatre, painting, music. Here it enters the nineteen-year son and it as though underlines the right of the young man to the further independence. Here the father acquaints Morisa with Eric Sati, on expression of Romena Rollana, "ёѕфръютр=№ь Socrat French ьѕч№ъш".

Ravel is less subject to influence of paradoxes of Sati, than its younger contemporaries united in creative group "Пхё=хЁър" but the ardent aphorisms of Sati invested with the unusual form leave a bright trace in its consciousness. The real Frenchman who has been brought up in the spirit of rationalism by the father, the admirer of philosophy of Descartes, Ravel already then, in days of a youth, comes to the conclusion that the higher skill of the artist consists in rational, economical selection of expressive means. Even in early products - the Grotesque serenade, "…рыырфх about the queen who has died from ы¦стш" in the Antique minuet - this avarice typical for Ravel in use of a sound material is noticed: any superfluous note, all ideally in proportion.

Odyssey of Ravel's creative youth is noted by considerable temptations, but its basic way lies between Stsilloj and Haribdoj, influences of Emmanuelja Shabrie and Eric Sati. They very different - ascetically strict, angular, indifferent to opinion and tastes of public Sati which are proud of scandals, caused by execution of its music, and "уѕы ър яЁрчфэ№щ" quite often vulgar, not afraid of charges in banality of Shabrie, the author of the most gentle "+ф№ ьѕч№ъх" Romantic waltzes and the well-known, symphonic play which have immortalised his name "¦ёярэі " in which along with poetic pages sounds deliberately, it is underlined "яю-яЁюё=хчъш" the stated music of the Spanish market, bullfight, a scene of squabble of scandal-mongers at a well etc.

Ravel is imposed by clearing of charms vagnerianstva, reached venomous musical caricatures on the author "-юыічр" (Gabriel Fore writes a caustic knickknack "Кх=Ёрыюушёхёър  ърфЁшыі" Shabrie composes "¤рЁюфш¦ on favourite themes from "КЁшё=рэр") . He does not worship to Wagner. It is attracted with other music. Bells "…юЁшёр +юфѕэютр" have cleared Ravel's interest to Russian composers; balakirevsky "Ђёырьхщ" has forced to treat in a new fashion tembrovo-harmonious possibilities of the piano invoice, and Half-Ovetsky dancings from "ЂуюЁ " shaken it as music from other planet, in many years were reflected in an orgy of pirates of ballet "-р¶эшё and +ыю ". But more all Ravel will stun "Пх§хЁрчрфр" Roman-korsakova. To a theme "Пх§хЁрчрф№" Ravel addresses repeatedly. At one time he thought of an opera on this plot; the overture which has caused ridiculous, in due time the sensational review of critic Pierre Lalo, and further Ravel not taking out music has been written only. Here that Lalo wrote about the overture, in passing distributing "ъЁш=шёхёъшх юяыхѕ§ш" to classics: "‡ёыш Mr. Ravel thinks that its overture is constructed under the classical plan it is necessary to recognise that Mr. Ravel is presented by rich imagination. Its manner of the letter reminds Grieg, and even more Roman-korsakova or Balakirev - the same incoherence in a composition and in tonalities, but these lines, strange enough already at model, are finished to the point of irrationality ѕёхэшъюь".

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