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Ravel Maurice / Moris Ravel (a part III)

the Premiere "-р¶эшёр and +ыюш" has been given in the beginning of summer of 1912 on a scene of Parisian theatre Shatle performed by troupe of Russian ballet in Sergey Dyagilev's enterprise.

On an hour and a half spectators miracle of art of Ravel, Fokina, artist Baksta, great actors - Tamaras Karsavinoj and Vaclav Nizhinsky - have appeared transferred to antique Elladu, in atmosphere of the revived vase-painting.

Ravel also did not think of antiquity stylisation. Music "-р¶эшёр and +ыюш" on clearness of melodic lines, spice of harmonies, on refinement of the orchestral colour including and choral paints, on rationally verified proportions of the form - the phenomenon purely French. But in it there is that ethical cleanliness of a spontaneity which each display matches peripetias of the antique novel about young Dafnise and Hloe.

The Friendship with Stravinsky, Fokinym, Dyagilev has even more pull together Ravel with Russian art; it is possible to judge it on several products of the different plan and scale: that is the small piano play "- to a manner …юЁюфшэр" an instrumentation plan "гхэш=іс№" Musorgsky, and that the huge works showing as Ravel has deeply got into spirit of Russian art. It is enough to recollect its work on the score "+ютрэЁшэ№" operas, as it is known, not finished by Musorgsky. Dyagilev planning statement "+ютрэЁшэ№" in Paris, has ordered to Stravinsky and Ravel new edition of an opera and the full score. Unfortunately, the destiny of the score is unknown. Apparently, it has burnt down during a fire of an estate of Stravinsky Ustilug on Volhynia.

Ravel's Other reference to Musorgsky's music - instrumentation of a piano cycle "-рЁ=шэъш with т№ё=ртъш" - has led to occurrence of one of the most amazing scores of the century, widely occurring on symphonic platforms of all world.

To Ravel's Russian communications we are obliged also to occurrence of the ingenious play of the Bolero, hardly probable not its most popular composition. The participant of ballet troupe of Dyagilev Ida Rubinshtejn, whose original talent, appearance, a dancing manner drew attention of judges of ballet, has ordered to Ravel "Ђёярэёъѕ¦ dancing ёчхэѕ" for the the soloist dancer (i.e. For itself) and groups of ballet gentlemen. A plot in essence, a little original, constructed on themes of temptation, rivalry, jealousy, a bloody outcome.

The theme Composed by Ravel consists of two sections, each of which lasts 17 steps. It there begins a flute, continues a clarnet and so - from the tool to the tool - passes this minted melodic contour, each time finding the increasing force, more and more intense dynamics that in a combination to an invariable, hypnotising rhythm of the shock makes bewitching impression. Any note of a theme is not changed, any supporting voices, any enrichment of a melody, anything, except steadily, a step behind a step of accruing power of sounding. Even the tonality (to a major) remains invariable and only before the ending suddenly moves that together with dynamic jump makes impression as if the orchestra was shined with hundred projectors.

It is necessary to notice that Ravel repeatedly addresses to a ballet genre that, no doubt, is connected with the Parisian seasons of the Russian ballet which has shown, what possibilities consist in originally simfonizirovannom ballet ("грЁ-¤=шчр" "¤х=Ёѕ°ър" "-хёэр ёт Ёхээр " Stravinsky, Half-Ovetsky dancings of Borodino, "Пх§хЁрчрфр" Roman-korsakova). So there is a charming children's ballet "¦ю  the mother уѕё№э " five tiny fantastic scenes: "¤ртрэр Sleeping ъЁрёртшч№" "¦рыіёшъ with ярыіёшъ" "-ѕЁэѕ°ър, the empress Chinese ё=р=ѕІ=юъ" "-Ёрёртшчр and ёѕфютшЁх" and "-юы°хсэ№щ ёрф".

Ravel writes a choreographic poem "-рыіё" simfonizirovannoe refraction of a genre of the Viennese waltz in its development from Schubert and to Strauss's dynasty. However, Ravel has anticipated amazing on shine and an ingenuity the score the explanatory, so foggy that disputes on it, on its maintenance, a plot do not stop to this day, especially in the choreographic world. Without looking in unsuccessful comments but only listening attentively to music, it is easy to draw a conclusion that movement becomes more and more feverish and uncontrollably aspires to final accident.

Besides, there is a basis to believe that in 1914 under Dyagilev Ravel's offer worked over orkestrovkoj "-рЁэртрыр" Schuman. But about a manuscript site, equally, as well as about, whether it is finished, we while know nothing. Apparently, this score should replace existing since 1910 in Petersburg orchestral edition "-рЁэртрыр".

The Begun First World War not only has broken Ravel's creative plans, but for some years has changed all current of his life. In the letter to the friend Siprienu Godebsky Ravel soon after declaration of war wrote: "-ю= the third day... This alarm, these crying women and especially this terrifying enthusiasm of young men; and how many friends already cunningly on war and about anybody from them I know nothing. I any more in forces to take out this severe, continuous nightmare. I or will become crazy, or to a camp afflicted persuasive шфххщ".

That Ravel named "эрт чёштющ шфххщ" was its invincible desire to become in numbers of those who battles for France. Ravel's small growth, slender addition interfered with its transfer in army. Having shown improbable persistence, it became the driver of an ambulance and adequately drew duty. But also in army, in works and deprivations, he did not leave a musical paper.

The French patriot, Ravel at the same time was far from the slightest display of chauvinism. And, when to it has addressed "-шур protection French ьѕч№ъш" the organisation with an obvious nationalist bias, with the offer to enter its numbers, Ravel has answered with the letter full of advantage and an open-mindedness: "...Ї I do not think, that for "ю§Ёрэ№" our national art heritage it was necessary to forbid public execution in France the modern German and Austrian products which yet have not become by general property... For me, for example, it is unimportant that Mr. Shyonberg the Austrian on a nationality... I am admired by that Mr. Bartok, Kodaj and their followers - Hungarians, and that they so brightly express in music national ёрьюё=ю =хыіэюё=і".

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