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Igor Stravinsky / Igor Stravinsky (a part III)

And again Stravinsky addresses to the remote past, this time getting into depth of centuries, in antique mythology where finds the whole cycle of legends about son Zevsa, Apollo - the leader of chorus of nine muses. Stravinsky itself composes a dramaturgic outline of ballet. In the centre of ballet competition of three muses: muses of singing of Poligimnii, a muse of the epos of Kalliopy and a muse of dance of Terpsihory. In summary Apollo praises Terpsihoru and itself dances, showing to muses an ideal of harmony of harmony of all movements to which and it is necessary to aspire in any art.

Stravinsky has been allocated by amazing gift of transformation. It is not noticed by those who reproaches Stravinsky in stilizatorstve. Neither in "¤ѕыіёшэхыых" nor in "¦ртЁх" in "+яюыыюэх ¦ѕёрух=х" Stravinsky does not become a pas a way of stylisation of the Italian music, Pushkin time music, or especially - music of the Ancient Greece data about which are limited to the theoretical given and literary certificates. Keeping the manner of the letter, a manner and style of the composer of the XX-th century, language, tool paints, harmonious and polyphonic receptions, Stravinsky two-three strokes, an originality of melodic turn and the tool characteristic "ё=рэютш=ё " the Italian, Pushkin's contemporary, the witness of dialogues of Apollo and muses. Only in "¤ѕыіёшэхыых" as it was specified, it uses materials of Pergolezi. But also them it "яхЁхёърч№трх= the ёыютрьш". And if here speech can go about stylisation, about special type of stylisation: Pergolezi "яюф Р=Ёртшэёъюую".

Some more time after "+яюыыюэр" Stravinsky is involved with antiquity. In 1927 he writes an opera-oratorio "НрЁі ¦фшя" in seven years - a melodrama "¤хЁёх¶ю==р" and in 1948 - ballet "+Ё¶хщ". These products keep within frameworks "эхюъырёёшёхёъюую" the period. But also in ballet "+уюэ" appeared in 1957, judging by the name ("+уюэ" in a Greek way means - competition, competition), are felt antiquity trends, though ballet bessjuzheten.

The First of the products named here - "НрЁі ¦фшя". The tragedy of Sofokla is realised by Stravinsky into an opera-oratorio of solemn monumental style. In it the scenary outline of action is kept, but action, speeches-arias, intonations of chorus are deprived the pathos, that passionate enthusiasm by which heroes of the Greek tragedies shook the huge amphitheatres of Ellady which are watching changes of force and weakness of human characters, behind struggle against fatal predetermination. The rights B.Jarustovsky specifying that "ётюш Stravinsky has directed forces on "юс·хъ=штшчрчш¦" tragedies Рю¶юъыр". But even in such "юс·хъ=штшчшЁютрээюь" a kind "¦фшя" leaves the big impression cold severity of melodic contours, severe monumentalism of forms, nemnogosloviem tragical skaza, the general atmosphere of relevancy of occurring events. For forty lives with superfluous years on concert platforms and opera scenes "НрЁі ¦фшя" became one of Igor Stravinsky's the most popular products.

The New reference to antiquity is connected with the composition by request of Russian ballerina Idy Rubinshtejn (1885-1960) "¤хЁёх¶юэ№" (1934), the melodrama treated in a genre as in the Middle Ages named a drama with singing, tool music and dances. In ballet has found the embodiment immemorial krugooborot the nature, in antique mythology Persefony symbolised by leaving, daughters of the goddess of fertility, to the husband to Plutonu in the underground world and its returning to the earth. The nature shipped in grief and catalepsy, and the nature as in spring exulting, with an unusual subtlety are transferred by means of the orchestra mixed and children's chorus and the the soloist singer. Action is carried out by a pantomime, almost static, consisting mainly from poses, instead of movement on a scene. Music "¤хЁёх¶юя№" - one more example so typical for Stravinsky "юс·хъ=штшчрчшш" avoiding the direct emotional statement. Especially Stravinsky avoids statements from the first person, is afraid "Іъёушсшчшюэшчьр" that is "ёрьююсэрцхэш " Considering that business of the composer - to create music, instead of to open itself through music. And if the music created by it raises various emotional conditions it is result of the contact established between listeners and music at listeners. In this process the person of the composer does not play any role. The composer aside.

To This concept ideally answers "Ршь¶юэш  яёрыьют" composed in 1930 "-ю glory of god and devoted to the Boston orchestra in honour of it 50-ых=ш ". In Stravinsky Simfonija's creative biography of psalms takes a place similar on value to a place, occupied "-хёэющ ёт Ёхээющ". Stravinsky's two these scores have rendered and continue to have the strongest influence on character of musical thinking of the XX-th century.

To write "-хёэѕ ёт Ёхээѕ¦" Stravinsky did not need to become the pagan. In the same way for the composition of the Symphony of psalms and even resulted above dedication it was not obligatory to enter monastic order. Was to present itself in a monastic toga enough. It is one more, probably most amazing, an example "яхЁхтюяыюЁхэш " about which it was a question above.

In three-private "Ршь¶юэшш" texts of three psalms are used. But - a strange thing - the composer has concerned with an absolute indifference their maintenance, absolutely other problems so far as were solved. The first of them - submission to strict polyphonic discipline of all elements of the symphony, even the process formoobrazovanija. Therefore in the symphony of psalms also there are direct discrepancies between "ёь№ёыюь" the text and its musical "ючтѕёштрэшхь". The attention was repeatedly paid To it. In particular, one of researchers writes: "Иръ=юь that the most joyful verses of psalms are given in severe instrumentation and in the same gloomy choral sounding, and the most impressing episode, contrary to character of the text ("Laudate" is;) It is given in lowered dynamics. It testifies to that, however there corresponds music to the product written "тю glory сюур" a little;. In the Symphony of psalms polyphony dominates, planing, rationally using each melodic turn. It reaches the highest expression in II part written in the form of a double fugue.

The Composer has limited itself to expressive means of the mixed chorus and a symphonic orchestra from which has withdrawn violins and altos. Such asketichnost only has underlined severity of a plan. On the Symphony of psalms evolution of the orchestral letter from romanticism to constructivism comes to the end. At romanticists sound atmosphere has been condensed, and at neoromanticists (Wagner, Rih. Strauss) became "яхЁхѕяыю=эхээющ": all "І=рцш" scores were filled with the dense mobile invoice. Impressionists as though "яЁюЁѕсшыш яЁюёхъш"; in sound wood became more air, and each branch was traced from a trunk to last leaf. Stravinsky has gone further away: it "ЁрчЁхфшы" a sound fabric, and in the rarefied atmosphere each note became event.

Are right numerous, critics who, independently from each other, came up with idea that never it is impossible to expect a genre, style, a letter manner, an orientation of a plot of any, following product of Stravinsky, so independently there is each his composition. Stravinsky has been allocated by rare line which it is possible to name "яхяют=юЁ ьюё=і¦". Not without reason it named "ъюьяючш=юЁюь thousand one ё=шы ".

Among compositions of premilitary decade - among them the Concert for a violin with an orchestra (1931), mentioned already "¤хЁёх¶юэр" the Concert for a chamber orchestra (1937), "…рых=э№х ёчхэ№" (1938) - considerable interest represents also ballet "ЂуЁр in ърЁ=№" (1937), Music of this ballet is full of vivacity and charm and though anything in purely musical plan does not remind "¤ѕыіёшэхыыѕ" they are made related by wit, ease, the playfulness, going, apparently, from "эхтёрьфхыш°эюё=ш" an event on a scene, for heroes of ballet - a pack for game in poker.

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