Main cтраница Main cтраница
Main cтраница
Main cтраница
Main cтраница

Main cтраница
Main cтраница Main cтраница Main cтраница Main cтраница

Igor Stravinsky / Igor Stravinsky (1882 - 1971)

the Composer revives protogenic severity of customs of the tribe headed by Oldest-wisest in music, revives ceremonies of spring guessings, spells of forces of the nature, a scene umykanija girls, the most ancient ceremony of the Kiss of the earth, glorification Selected and, at last, an irrigation of the earth its sacrificial blood. Music "-хёэ№ ёт Ёхээющ" it is sated such strained, a force majeure of discords what never before did not arise in the score of any composer. The big place in music "-хёэ№" occupy politonalnye constructions. The complexity of harmonious language aggravated with refinement of rhythms, incessantly changing the outlines as the blazing flame, weaved melodic streams, - all it makes impression of any primitive wildness, the world prapredkov in which the nature and the person are unseparably uniform.

In the scandal which has flashed at evening prime ministers, first blamed Stravinsky, but music "-хёэ№" has been rehabilitated, when, executed in a symphony concert, it has caused an ovation. It is necessary to address a considerable share of fault to Vaclav Nizhinsky, the most talented dancer deprived, however, baletmejsterskogo of gift and experience. Later one of critics wrote: "¤рЁшцёър  a premiere "-хёэ№ ёт Ёхээющ" it is recollected as something very considerable, as fight under Waterloo, as the first flight air °рЁр".

In each of first three ballets forming a kernel "Ёѕёёъюую яхЁшюфр" Stravinsky, through different sides national lines of its musical thinking refract. And in three subsequent products - "Ђё=юЁшш ёюыфр=р" "Ртрфхсъх" and "¦ртЁх" - it finds again interpretations of national features of Russian music not similar among themselves.

In a plot basis "Ђё=юЁшш ёюыфр=р" (1918) fairy tales from A.Afanaseva's collection about the fluent soldier, met line are put. A genre "Ђё=юЁшш ёюыфр=р" Stravinsky defines so: "Рърчър about the fluent soldier and the line, read, played and =рэчѕхьр ". The set of variants of this fairy tale occurred during the Nikolaev epoch, reflecting burdens soldatchiny, lasting tens years.

Torn off from the native earth, living since 1913 that in France in Switzerland, Stravinsky writes strange and a terrifying story how the soldier has sold I smother line and has exchanged the violin on charodejskuju the book which is bringing in to its fantastic incomes. And, though the hero cures the princess of melancholy, dances with it both the tango and a ragtime, at last marries it, it still remains the Russian soldier. It is necessary to listen to abstruse fun of its violin when, having taken seat at a stream, he unburdens the heart to feel, how zaela the soldier melancholy on the native earth, where hatka mothers, both the bride, and a country churchyard... Seems in "Ђё=юЁшш ёюыфр=р" any hysterical, symbolical implied sense... Rakhmaninov's which has generated its Third symphony the sincere distemper is involuntarily recollected.

"Ртрфхсър" (1923) unites elements of a cantata, a pantomime and an ancient ceremony of Russian wedding. The performing structure is unusual: to chorus and soloists it is added "юЁъхё=Ё" consisting of four pianos and a set of percussion instruments. It is not deprived interest that on the London premiere "Ртрфхсъш" in 1926 of party of a piano the French composers of Orik and Poulenc, the Italian composer Rieti and the pianist Dukelsky played.

This tool ensemble reminds any original, sharply and mighty sounding psaltery.

Stravinsky laboriously studied musical and text materials, all "ёшэ" a wedding ceremony, "ЁхцшёёѕЁѕ" exits, uhodov, zapevov characters of wedding ritual, but all musical fabric has composed, having taken advantage of one only the citation, a song "Ї on a belt in gold it was twisted, pearl mahorchiki to чхьыш". Polyphony peculiar to Russian folk music blossoms almost in each step of this amazing score.

In "¦ртЁх" (1922) Stravinsky addresses to Pushkin, to it "-юьшъѕ in -юыюьэх" recomposed on a vaudevillian harmony poet Boris Kohno. To "¦ртЁх" it is not necessary to concern as the product putting deep problems. "¦ртЁр" is an opera-joke. In it the cartoon, grotesque, parodijnost, but not satire because it is caused "¦ртЁр" prevail; not a sneer, and liking to a life of the Petersburg remote place of a Pushkin time. All its music is cast podgitarnoj by lyrics and its echoes. Not without reason Stravinsky has preferred arias of Parashi a song "К№ do not sing, kinareechka, in ёрфѕ". The "юяхЁъѕ" Stravinsky has devoted to Pushkin, Glinka, Tchaikovsky, whose portraits decorate the score title page.

In the book "+Ёюэшър mine цшчэш" Stravinsky recollects a unique meeting with Tchaikovsky: "...ьэх has had the luck to see in Peter Ilicha Tchaikovsky foyer, an idol of Russian public which I never met before also which to me it was not fated to see more...ja could not present, of course, to itself that this though also fleeting, the meeting with live Tchaikovsky will become one of the most expensive to me тюёяюьшэрэшщ".

Running forward, we will specify in musical, creative expression of love of Stravinsky to Tchaikovsky, on its ballet "¤ючхыѕщ ¶хш" written in 1928 and named the author "+ыыхуюЁшёхёъшь the ballet cast by music Орщъютёъюую". In the ballet Stravinsky used a number of products of Tchaikovsky as a thematic material: "-юы№схыіэѕ¦ in сѕЁ¦" "МьюЁхёъѕ" "-р=р-трыіё" "-юъ=¦Ёэ" "РъхЁчю" "-шё=юъ from рыісюьр" a romance "-х=, only the one who чэры". The libretto is written by the composer who has put in its basis a fairy tale of G.Andersen "-хф эр  фхтр".

In years when in the European art all develops an expressionism with its hypertrophy of emotions more actively, in a counterbalance to it Stravinsky addresses to art for a long time the left centuries and therefrom scoops not only plots, musical materials, composition receptions, but first of all that reserved emotional current which is not supposed to vyhlestyvaniju outside. So there are ballets "¤ѕыіёшэхыыр" (1919), "+яюыыюэ ¦ѕёрух=" (1928) and already mentioned "¤ючхыѕщ ¶хш"; an opera-oratorio "НрЁі ¦фшя" (1927), the Symphony of psalms (1930), a melodrama "¤хЁёх¶юэр" (1934), the Octet for a flute, a clarnet, 2 bassoons, 2 pipes and 2 trombones (1922-1923).

In the literature on Stravinsky classification of its creative periods is accepted: the Russian which is coming to an end "Ртрфхсъющ" that is 1923; neoclassical, covering the thirtieth anniversary till 1953; and dodekafonichesky, come in 1953 and noted by Septet creation - the first product in which turn of the ardent opponent dodekafonii to technician Shyonberga is planned - Veberna (there and then we will stipulate that such division sins with sketchiness and gives only rough representation about evolution "яюёхЁър" Igor Stravinsky).

In the majority of products of the period "эхюъырёёшчшчьр" Stravinsky keeps "Іяшёхёъюх ёяюъющё=тшх" and in "¤ѕыіёшэхыых" and cheerfulness. This ballet has arisen at the initiative of S.Dyagilev who has found out in the Italian archives and Library of the British museum two unknown comic operas of J. Pergolezi and it 12 sonatas for two violins and a bass, a cantata, a tool suite, a gavotte and the Symphony for a violoncello and a contrabass. Besides, the manuscript of the comedy scenario of a XVIII-th century has been found in Naples. On its basis the ballet dramatic art about the favourite hero of the Neapolitan street, Pulchinelle, about its fans of Rosette and Prudentse, about jealous gentlemen of young beauties, about imaginary death of Pulchinelly and its cheerful revival and about three weddings played one day and hour has grown. Put on the Parisian scene Leonid Mjasinym in Pablo Picasso's scenery, ballet "¤ѕыіёшэхыыр" has held a firm place in repertoire of theatres, and in the form of a symphonic suite - on philharmonic platforms.

< we come back - it is readable further >