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Hanns Eisler / Hans Ejsler (1898 - 1962)

In the late twenties in working areas of Berlin, and then in wide ranges of the German proletariat of a steel to extend Hans Ejslera's fighting mass songs - the composer-communist, further played an outstanding role in the history of a revolutionary song of the XX-th century.

In commonwealth with poets Bertoltom Brecht, Erihom Vajnertom, singer Ernest Bush Ejsler enters into use new type of a song - a song-slogan, a song-poster calling for struggle against the world of capitalism. So there is the song genre which has got the name "Kampflieder" - "яхёэш сюЁіс№". To this genre of Ejsler has come a difficult way.

Hans Ejsler / Hanns Eisler Hans Ejsler was born in Leipzig, but has lived here not for long, only four years. It has spent the childhood and a youth in Vienna. Employment by music have begun at early age, in 12 years he tries to compose. Without the aid of teachers, studying only on examples of music known to it, Ejsler writes the first compositions noted by the press diletantizma. Young man Ejsler enters the youth revolutionary organisation and when the First World War has begun, he actively participates in creation and distribution of the propaganda literature directed against war.

He was 18 years old when it has got on front the soldier. Here for the first time music and revolutionary ideas were crossed in its consciousness and there were first songs - responses to the validity surrounding it.

After war, having returned to Vienna, Ejsler arrives in conservatory and becomes Arnold Shyonberga's pupil, the founder dodekafonicheskoj the systems, called to destroy centuries developing principles of musical logic and a materialistic musical aesthetics. In pedagogical practice of those years Shyonberg addressed exclusively to classical music, focusing the pupils on the composition by the strict initial rules having deep traditions.

The Years spent in a class of Shyonberga (1918-1923), have given the chance to Ejsleru to study bases of composer technics. In its piano sonatas, the Quintet for wind instruments, choruses on Heine's verses, refined miniatures for a voice, a flute, a clarnet, an alto and a violoncello the confident manner of the letter, and stratification of diverse influences, first of all, naturally, influence of the teacher, Shyonberga affects also.

Ejsler becomes very intimate with heads of the choral amateur art very developed in Austria, and soon becomes one of the most passionate advocates of mass forms of musical education in a working environment. The thesis "¦ѕч№ър and Ёхтюы¦чш " becomes defining and indestructible for all his life. For this reason it feels internal necessity of revision of the aesthetic positions imparted by Shyonbergom and its environment. In the end of 1924 Ejsler moves to Berlin where so pulse of a life of the German working class where communist party influence grows every day where Ernest Telmana's performances it is perspicacious tensely fights specify to workers to weights in what danger is concealed in itself by more and more stirred up activity of the reaction going to fascism.

Debuts of Ejslera as the composer cause original scandal in Berlin. Execution of a vocal cycle on the texts borrowed from newspaper announcements was an occasion to it. A problem, which Ejsler has put before itself, it was clear: a deliberate prosaism, dullness to put "яюЁхёшэѕ public тъѕёѕ" meaning tastes of inhabitants, petty bourgeoises as it was practised by Russian futurists in the literary and oral performances. On execution "+рчх=э№§ юс· тыхэшщ" the criticism has reacted in appropriate way, without stinting in a choice of swear words and offensive epithets.

Ejsler has concerned an episode with "+с· тыхэш ьш" ironically enough, understanding that excitation of an alarm and scandals in a narrow-minded bog hardly should be considered as event serious. Continuing the friendship begun still in Vienna with working amateur performance, Ejsler receives in Berlin considerably more ample opportunities, having connected the activity with the Marxist working school, one of the centres of the ideological work, the organised Central Committee of Communist party of Germany. Here its creative friendship with poets Bertoltom Brecht and Erihom Vajnertom, with composers Charles Ranklem, Vladimir Foglem, Ernest Meyer is fastened.

It is necessary to remember that the end of 20th years - time of total success of a jazz, the novelty which have appeared in Germany after war of 1914-18. Ejslera involve in a jazz of those times not sentimental sighs, not sensual languor of a slow foxtrot and not turmoil fashionable then dance "°шььш" - it highly appreciates clearness of an abrupt rhythm, an indestructible outline of a mid-flight grid on which melodic drawing is distinctly allocated. So there are songs and the ballads of Ejslera which are coming nearer on the melodic outlines in one cases to speech intonations, in others - to a German national song, but always the based pases full submission of the executor of an iron gait of a rhythm (more often mid-flight), on pathetic, oratorical dynamics. Huge popularity is won by such songs, as "-юьшэ=хЁэ" ("Гртюф№, тё=ртрщ=х!"), "¤хёэі ёюышфрЁэюё=ш" on Bertolta Brecht's text:

Let there are earths the people,
That their force has merged,
To become the earth free,
That the earth fed us!

Or such songs, as "¤хёэш collectors §ыюяър" "…юыю=э№х ёюыфр=№" "-Ёрёэ№щ -хффшэу" "¤хёэі about stale §ыхсх" received popularity in the majority of the countries of the world and pushed on itself luck of originally revolutionary art: attachment and love of one social groups and hatred of their class antagonists.

Ejsler addresses and to more developed form, to a ballad, but also here it does not put before the executor of purely vocal difficulties - tessiturnyh, tempo. All are solved by passion, pathetics of interpretation, certainly, in the presence of corresponding vocal resources. This performing style is obliged to the greatest degree to Ernest Bush - to the person, like Ejsleru which have devoted to music and revolution. The drama actor with wide amplitude of the images embodied by it: JAgo, Mefistofel, Galilej, heroes of plays of Fridriha Volf, Bertolta Brecht, Lyons Fejhtvangera, George Bjuhnera - it possessed an original singing voice, a baritone of a high metal timbre. The amazing feeling of a rhythm, ideal diction in a combination to actor's art of transformation have helped it to create the whole gallery of social portraits in various genres - from an unpretentious song to a dithyramb, a lampoon, oratorical propaganda performance. More exact coincidence of a composer plan and performing embodiment, than - Bush, it is difficult to present ensemble of Ejsler to itself. Their joint execution of a ballad "Крщэ№щ a campaign against Soviet Рю¦чр" (This ballad is known under the name "КЁхтюцэ№щ ьрЁ°") and "…рыырф№ invalids тющэ№" made indelible impression.

Priezdy Ejslera and Bush to Soviet Union in the thirties, their meetings with the Soviet composers, writers, conversations with And. M.Gorkim have scarred not only memoirs, but also in real creative practice as many executors have apprehended style lines of interpretation of Bush, and composers - a specific manner of the letter of Ejslera. Such different songs, as "¤юы¦°ъю-яюых" L.Knippera, "-ю= soldiers шфѕ=" K.Molchanov, "…ѕ§хэтрыіфёъшщ эрср=" V.Muradeli, "‡ёыш guys of all чхьыш" V.Soloveva-Sedogo, at all their originality, have inherited harmonious, rhythmic, in something and melodic formulas of Ejslera.

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