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Gustav Mahler / Gustav Mahler (a part IV)

the Following link - the Sixth symphony. It name Tragical. On-being, it is an antithesis in relation to the Fifth. It begins vigorous mid-flight movement, but in II part is already clear, the hero is involved in what tragical struggle with itself, and can be, the author of the symphony. On time the Sixth adjoins with "¤хёэ ьш about died фх= §". And not only on time. Ominous reflected lights light up the slow, II part melodiously reminding one of songs of a tragical cycle. After a fantastic scherzo there comes the ending sated energichnejshim with movement, and it specifies the music as though anticipating ekspressionistskuju a manner of the letter of composers of 20-30th years of the XX-th century.

The Second trilogy comes to the end with the Seventh symphony, product of absolutely special warehouse. In a context of two other links of the trilogy it sounds as "ышЁшёхёъюх шэ=хЁьхччю" with ekstaticheski sensual I part and triumph of the crashed out triumphing force in the ending. The centre of the five-private symphony occupies a Scherzo framed with two nocturnes (the first of them - a serenade written for an orchestra of usual structure; the second - a serenade, it is very refined orkestrovannaja: a the soloist violin, a mandoline, a guitar, a harp). And a Scherzo - game of treatments of light and shade carried away up, night procession, on-rembrandtovski contrastly shined, leaving impression of freakish images of Jean Polja. And when after three average parts written in a romantic manner (the second nocturne), Mahler comes to the ending, the impression is made that in its courageous sounding doubts, searches, failures and the tragical events collecting in the previous links of an epopee are dissolved. Grandness of its scales demands and corresponding culmination.

In the letter to the friend to conductor Willem Mengelbergu Mahler wrote: "Ї has just finished my Eighth symphony - most considerable of everything that I have written till now. The composition is so original under the maintenance and under the form that it is impossible even to tell about it in the letter. Imagine that the Universe starts to sound and ring. Sing not so human voices, and the turned sun and яырэх=№".

The Eighth Mahler often name the Symphony of thousand participants. Such "рьхЁшърэшчшЁютрээюх" the name tells nothing about the being malerovskoj music. It is grandiose on the plan which has concentrated in quintessence of philosophical meditations of the composer, failures, a pain for the person and mankind, tragedy of the artist. Mahler involves huge tool collective with 22-mja wooden and 17th copper tools, two mixed choruses and chorus of boys; to it 8 soloists (three sopranos, two altos, the tenor, a baritone and a bass) and a secret orchestra are added.

The Composer has divided the symphony on two parts, according to the text charged to choruses and soloists. In I is taken the text of a Catholic hymn: "Veni creator spiritus" ("¤Ёшфш, spirit цштю=тюЁ Ёшщ"), in II - vosmistishie from the ending of II part "Ирѕё=р" Goethe:

All rapid -
Symbol - sravnene.
The purpose infinite
Here - in dostizhene.
Here - zapovedannost
Trues of all.
Eternal feminity
Pulls you to it.

(B.Pasternak's Transfer)

In the culmination, Eighth symphony Mahler's understanding music as one of the higher forces of influence on the person and weight basic ethical idea most distinctly affects.

The Appeal to "фѕ§ѕ цштю=тюЁ Ёхьѕ" forces to recollect not so tserkovno-dogmatic church chanting, and the music calling the person to humanity, music of a psychological warehouse which is shown in the ending of the First symphony of Skryabin, in plans, let foggy and through idealistic, but proud idea skrjabinskoj "¦шё=хЁшш".

Attractive force "тхёэющ цхэё=тхээюё=ш" it is understood by Mahler not in direct, and furthermore - not in the simplified variant, and in the most generalised, sublimirovannom. "-хёэю цхэё=тхээюх" inseparably from creative, effective-reformative the beginning world. A raised humanistic role of art in a combination to its improving, effective force form a basis of a plan of the Eighth symphony. But all that terrible, brutal that remains behind its limits, it is impossible to overcome neither passionate protests, nor spells, leaving in depths of philosophy or a metaphysics jungle. Strangely enough, but the symphony, not that that mature, but without exaggerations - gained, has appeared frictionless. In last from the symphonies finished by Mahler, in the Ninth, written in 1909, the composer comes back to small, almost chamber structure, to rest after sound neistovstv the Eighth symphony. And in Andante (I part), and in Lendlere (II), and in a Rondo reminding the endings of symphonies of the Viennese classics, Mahler gives vent to especially personal feelings, underlining in final Adagio depth of suffering. In this sense the Ninth symphony can be treated as an antithesis in relation to the previous. More sharply, than ever, the composer felt requirement for final generalisation of the symphonic epopee. And then the plan of the Epilogue comprising those elements of an antithesis which so did not suffice in the Eighth was born. Was born "¤хёэі about чхьых". Whether it is based on verses of Chinese poets VIII-IX of centuries by Bo, Chen Shenja and Van Veja translated into German by Hans Betge. In six parts written for the tenor, a mezzo-soprano and an orchestra, - "Грё=юыіэр  яхёэ " "+фшэюъшщ юёхэі¦" "+ ¦эюё=ш" "+ ъЁрёю=х" "¤і эшчр тхёэющ" "¤ЁюЁрэшх" - Mahler creates gallery of sound cloths about a life, melancholy, fun, beauty, upoene and about inevitable for all real end. The composer does not quote itself, does not address neither to themes of a symphonic epopee, nor to text reminiscences. The associations connecting "¤хёэі about чхьых" with the previous links, arise by itself.

In "¤хёэх about чхьых" as well as in the Ninth symphony, Mahler rejects the grandiose performing device of the Eighth. He has heart-felt conversation, without hesitating of intimate intonations. At the very beginning of a feast when cups are already filled and sitting at a table stretch to them hands, they are stopped by a voice of the singer: "¤юър do not drink, I will accustom to drinking to you яхёэ¦". As an inscription "¦рэх tekel ¶рЁхё" arisen on a wall, according to an ancient bible legend, words here sound:

All is terrible in this life,
The death waits for us.

The refined and fragile soundings of a song "+ ¦эюё=ш" vospevanie beauty (III and IV parts of a cycle) cannot oppose light and good to music of those parts in which the world appears in gloomy presentiments of the end,  destruction ("+фшэюъшщ юёхэі¦" "¤ЁюЁрэшх"). And the nature, the invariable companion and the interlocutor of all "ё=Ёрэё=тѕ¦Ёш§ and яѕ=х°хё=тѕ¦Ёш§" the nature, is so much times clearing up and heroes malerovskih symphonies raised thoughts and hope, here, in "¤хёэх about чхьых" alas, listens to a faltering, incoherent monologue, a tragical exposure of soul ("¤і эшчр тхёэющ").

In the beginning of a symphonic epopee, in "¦рЁ°х in a manner -рыыю" from the First symphony, the wood wild beasts froliced under deliberately banal motive. Here, in a song of the drunkard, "Охыютхёхёър  ъюьхфш " approaches the end. Therefore so contrast between immemorial cleanliness of the nature, its bird's posvistami, trills and incoherent mutter of the person who has approached to last line, for which - a non-existence is tragic.

The Theme of suffering, parting with a life finishes and "¤хёэі about чхьых" and the Ninth symphony, and all epopee including ten monumental scores. In them fruits of philosophical meditations of Mahler, mature, gained in the conditions of the terrible world of cruelty, lie, oppression, are put

As it was already told, composer Gustav Mahler was not the room philosopher. Not books, and the life conducted it deep into the phenomena. Seeing ulcers of the modern bourgeois society which motive forces he hardly probable comprehended, Mahler could not take of a position "эрф ё§тр=ъющ". It in fight, and in hands at it the weapon of the art striking harm. He calls to light and the truth all energy of the talent.

Being addressed not to selected, and to wide weight of listeners, following in it by the way of Beethoven and Tchaikovsky, Mahler always saw before itself the highest top philosophical simfonizma - the Ninth Beethoven. Like the great teacher who has addressed in the ending Ninth to the word - to soloists, chorus, - Mahler feels necessity for the help of a word there where to it concreteness of an image, actions, ideas is especially important. For this reason in the second, Third, Fourth, Eighth symphonies he addresses to "-юы°хсэюьѕ to a horn ьрыіёшър" to Klopshtoku, Nitsshe, and in "¤хёэх about чхьых" - to the Chinese poets.

Not only the hero of its symphonic annals suffers tragical defeats in collisions with platitude, lie, cynicism. Defeats are suffered in not smaller degree by Mahler. Decade during which time the Viennese opera headed by it has reached unknown blossoming, has ended with its compelled leaving. The years spent by it in the USA (1907-1911), have left the bitter deposit caused by narrow-minded spirit, and an absolute indifference to a true art of orchestral players, singers, managers, publics. Not without reason Shalyapin observing its work in Underground-opera, its vain efforts to break routine, said a surname of the great musician not "¦рыхЁ" and "¦ры©Ё" (French maleur - unfortunate)...

Soon after returning from America to Vienna Gustav Mahler has died. He has lived 51 year...

Many unresolved problems are connected with Mahler's creativity. Conductors, musicians carefully investigate its heritage, go deep into the world of its song and symphonic products. There was neoterminated a Tenth symphony. Judging by sketches, it has been conceived as "-рэ=х-ёшь¶юэш ". In the early twenties Ernest Kshenek has edited two parts, and in 1963 English musicologist Derik Cook has finished other parts of the symphony on Mahler's sketches. But only when the grandiose symphonic epopee towering over "грэюь -Ёшё=ю¶юь" and "Ррующ about ИюЁёрщ=р§" as the philosophical annals of a century, will become current judges of symphonic music, only then it will be possible to comprehend true greatness malerovskogo a heritage addressed to contemporaries and descendants.

The Rights there was I.I.Sollertinsky when wrote: "¦рыхЁ was the last who tried in Europe - in bourgeois culture - to construct "ёшь¶юэшёхёъшщ ьшЁ" on the basis of geroiko-philosophical яр¶юёр..."

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