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Gustav Mahler / Gustav Mahler (a part III)

Some researchers, including the First symphony product autobiographical, oppose it the Second which musical thoughts are directed to depth of immemorial questions of a life, death, sense of human life. Actually the First and the Second form with other symphonies a huge epopee, perhaps, the most grandiose in all history of tool music. And internal communication of the Second symphony with the First - a basic point of all symphonic epopee.

The Second symphony begins a mournful gait, the music full tragedijnosti and pathos. This mourning procession, funeral of the hero. If to listen attentively to a procession theme, it is possible to notice intonational similarity to the ending of the First symphony. So transition not only in thematic development is established, but that it is immeasurably more important, in the dramatic art covering two huge cloths. Here, in the beginning of the Second symphony, Mahler brings an immemorial attention to the question: in what meaning of the life? Tchaikovsky last symphonies, "РьхЁ=і Ivan Ђыішёр" are recollected; Tolstoy, "РьхЁ=і and яЁюётх=ыхэшх" Riharda Strauss, "-хтѕ°ър and ёьхЁ=і" Bitter - products in which so with emotion and sharply life and death themes face. Two following parts are turned to a life. The first of them - light, tender lendler, reminding shubertovskie waltzes. Softness of sounding of string tools in a melody, on-slavjanski heart-felt, postpones a twilight shrouding I part of the symphony. Besides the composer addresses to the conductor with the unusual note: "¤юёых for the first part it is necessary at least 5-minute яхЁхЁ№т". III part - a scherzo, music full of the sarcasm, borrowed by Mahler from the song - "¤Ёюяютхфі Antonija ¤рфѕрэёъюую". On sense, this part is necessary for the statement of thought on futility and any falseness of instructive sermons. The legend tells about how Antony Paduansky has come to a temple to preach, but has found a temple empty. Then the sacred father has gone on river bank and began to preach to fishes. Those listened, as well as it is necessary to fishes, silently that Antony has considered as an attention sign. But nothing has changed in their customs and behaviour.

And again, in IV parts, the symphony dramatic art comes to the initial tragical thesis: "+эх=х= the person the destiny, lives in a grief ёхыютхъ" - begins to sing a low female voice a song from "-юы°хсэюую Ёюур". Immemorial, painful questions of life Again come back. Mahler named this vocal part of the symphony "яхЁтючфрээ№ь ётх=юь" which attracts souls human, aspiring to clarification from vital are nasty before leaving "т the world шэющ". There comes a Last Judgement. The composer in last part unites expressive means of huge orchestral structure: quadruple quantity of wooden wind instruments, on six pipes and the French horns, eight litavr, two big drums, chorus, soloists, body; to it the second, secret orchestra is added still. All this arsenal urged to create frightening sound orgy, pictures of a Last Judgement and Revival from the dead. Mahler has addressed to the text of a choral of Klopshtoka: "ЛьЁѕ, that цш=і"; and at the very end of the symphony has added the verses: "+, trust, you not in vain were born, not in vain lived and ё=Ёрфры". Death of the hero of the symphony, "ьюыюфюую the person XIX тхър" lendlerovskaja idyll, futility and senselessness of the sermon hristianskrj morals, idea of spiritual clarification, a Last Judgement and dream of an eternal life, of revival - such are stages of philosophical reflexions of Mahler about a life, destiny and death, the reflexions close to ideas of the Apocalypse. "Ршь¶юэшш settle the maintenance of all my life, it is poetry and the truth in чтѕър§" - the composer spoke about the creativity.

In the Second symphony lasting about 80 minutes (!), Mahler has developed the difficult concept, which has found in the end mystical character (IV and V parts), but the concept supposing and other interpretation - immemorial krugooborot lives: origin, blossoming, dying and "тюёъЁх°хэшх" - new origin.

Herein, being guided on krugooborot in the nature, the composer states the maintenance of the Third symphony which it is possible to name the is musical-philosophical treatise panteista, follower Spinosa and Goethe. Unlike the previous symphonies, in it more light reign tone. And performing structure more transparent: an orchestra, female and children's chorus - as a contrast vocal paint - an alto.

As often happened at Mahler, he preliminary states the detailed literary program, maybe, necessary to it as an outline. Then he refuses it and leaves only the most short names of parts, short, but quite defined. Here their sequence: I. Awakening of the Sir; II. About what tell me flowers on a meadow; III. About what animals in wood speak to me; IV. About what speaks to me night; V. About what tell bells in the morning and VI. About what tells me love.

Even deeply having considered the program, dramatic art of the born symphony and having defined a figurative circle of each part, Mahler in the course of creativity quite often destroyed it the created scheme, more trusting logic of the creative certificate, than its preliminary planning. It concerns and the Third symphony. But the basic idea - immortality of the nature and its wisdom - is kept by the composer.

The Following chapter of a tool epopee - the Fourth symphony. In it amazes modesty of structure - a usual orchestra, even without trombones. I part touches the "фх=ёъюё=і¦" the music written almost in gajdnovskih tones; it reminds a serenade with a lingering singsong of melodic voices and guitar pizzicato accompaniment. II part, slow, as though braked grotesque dance fancifully sounds. Then in an ingenious adagio follow elegicheskie reflexions about a vanity of all terrestrial. The variation form gives the chance to approach from the different parties to this theme. In the symphony ending the soprano enters. And again Mahler addresses to reception of introduction of music of the previous symphony. Here V part of the Third symphony is taken. The female voice sings of serenity "эхсхёэющ цшчэш". The text of this song is a little clear even to Germans for it sounds on the old Bavarian dialect and, maybe, therefore makes impression of any cosy thriftiness, and at all aspirations to "Ёрщёъшь ъѕЁрь"Е

In the extensive literature on Mahler its symphonic heritage shares on some groups more often: the First symphony consider as the Prologue; the Second, the Third and the Fourth - as the first trilogy; the Fifth, the Sixth and the Seventh - as the second trilogy; the Eighth as the culmination, and the Ninth and "¤хёэі about чхьых" - as an epilogue. Undoubtedly that first four symphonies are connected by a generality of the idea which have caused use of chorus, soloists, program headings, transition of a thematic material from the symphony in the symphony, citing of songs and parts of song cycles. The pupil and Mahler's follower - Bruno Walter - wrote about its first four symphonies: "+ъюэёшырёі struggle for outlook music means. Now he wishes to write music only as ьѕч№ърэ=". But hardly it is possible to consider that Mahler's struggle "чр outlook means ьѕч№ъш" has come to the end on last page of the Fourth symphony.

As the thesis about aspiration of the composer-philosopher to write other symphonies is doubtful (including and "¤хёэі about the earth), avoiding categories world outlook. In first four symphonies Mahler conducts naprjazhennejshie internal dialogues that the Life is totally defined by concept and that includes concept the Person. And as Mahler's hero not the titan (though Jean Polja Richter's poem "Кш=рэ" was a push to creation of the First symphony also;), and the usual person, only the person of a romantic warehouse contradictions in it are aggravated to a limit. He could tell about itself(himself): "Р amazement, a pain and pleasure comprehending the world, I learn ёхс ".

In the second trilogy malerovsky the hero enters other phase, more effective. In a counterbalance to difficult searches of a place of the person in a universe, to problems of a life and death, the nature and a human society, the truth and hypocrisy, belief and unbelief, in the Fifth symphony the Person struggling with Darkness rises. That is hostile to pleasure, to humanity ideals, is given in I part where the central place occupies a mourning march. In following three parts it is possible to catch known similarity to dramatic art of symphonies of Tchaikovsky. After sated psychological naplastovany the deliberately primitively sounding Viennese waltz is given I part. Returning to the world of pure feelings lights up poetichnejshee Adagietto with its refined colour of a string quintet and a harp. Without a pause the ending confirming courage, clearness, force follows. On prevailing light colour this symphony is related the Third. In it - the optimistic beginning of the new trilogy.

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