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Gustav Mahler / Gustav Mahler (a part II)

Lajbah, Olmjunts, Kassel, Leipzig, Budapest, Hamburg and, at last, Vienna where it has taken a place of the director, the art director, the main conductor, a word - the dictator of a court opera. Whether there was it really the dictator? Yes, was. More than that is the despot. But for the sake of what Mahler stormed? This indisputable master of a scene and an orchestra achieved that? It is unique - music! Neither the personal blessings, nor performing whims, sights, opinions, orders of the mighty of this world, - nothing had for Mahler of any value. Its pupil Bruno Walter, recollecting Mahler, wrote: "+э did not know any banal ьшэѕ=№". Yes, Mahler was the knight of music without fear and reproach.

P.I.Tchaikovsky stayed in Hamburg when there prepared statement "+эхушэр". Without knowing, who such Mahler, what ways have led to its conductor's stand and to what tops will withdraw, but seeing, hearing, as this conductor unknown to it operates an orchestra and a scene, Tchaikovsky wrote: "Гфхёі the conductor not any average hand, and simply ingenious... Yesterday I heard under its management the most surprising execution ДКрэухщчхЁр"".

From article in article, from work in work the opinion that Mahler's conductor's activity was the most serious barrier on its composer way wanders. Yes, conducting ate a lot of time. But really it gave nothing in exchange to Mahler - to the musician, the composer? After all constant dialogue with music of classics and contemporaries, is professional-muzykantskoe vnikanie in secrets, in secrets of an embodiment of the validity in music, the analysis of style, an individual manner of the letter; the consent and disagreement with the author with whom it is conducted "тэѕ=Ёхээшщ фшрыюу" - really all it did not enrich the composer, standing up for a conductor's stand, did not promote formation of its composer shape?

Mahler wrote chamber music To a youth (the quartet, a quintet), tried to write and operas ("¦Ёэё= Птрсёъшщ" "+Ёуюэрт=№"). Then all was otrinuto. And only two genres remained undividedly to dominate in its consciousness - a song and the symphony.

Young years of Mahler were embodied in Fourteen songs created in 1880. In a shower of the twenty years' composer the voice of a muse of Schubert sounds. It as though doskazyvaet that has not had time to tell to the author "-хёэюую чрЁ " and "-хюъюэёхээющ ёшь¶юэшш". By this time Mahler gets a grasp and falls in love in "-юы°хсэ№щ a horn ьрыіёшър" the collection of the German national songs collected by Klemensom Bretano, one of pillars of the Heidelberg circle of romanticists. After Fourteen songs the new opus is born: Twelve songs from "-юы°хсэюую Ёюур" and in Mahler's Second, Third, Fourth symphonies, there, where he addresses to vocal music, the tunes cast by verses from national poetry sound full of sincerity, cleanliness.

In 1883 Mahler composes a vocal cycle "¤хёэш wandering яюфьрё=хЁі ". Pamjatuja about three shubertovskih cycles - "¤ЁхъЁрёэр  ьхыіэшёш§р" "Гшьэшщ яѕ=і" and "-хсхфшэр  яхёэ " - malerovskis the song can name "ёх=тхЁ=№ь a song cycle ПѕсхЁ=р". Mahler has composed verses itself, taking only in the first of four songs as a beginning the beginning of one of verses "-юы°хсэюую Ёюур".

Wandering a journeyman - the brother of that young miller that has fallen in love in fine melnichihu. Both shubertovsky, and malerovsky the hero equally calibrate the warm secrets to the nature, equally grieve for reciprocal feeling, are equally similar to thousand and thousand same guys, with kotomkoj behind shoulders gone to a way on searches of simple human happiness.

And again shubertovskis traditions revive in a cycle "¤хёэш about died фх= §" on words of Fridriha Rjukkerta. The tragical ending "¦хыіэшёш§ш" is recollected; - "-юы№схыіэр  Ёѕёі " lulling suicide; Schubert's ingenious song, short as an aphorism "-хтѕ°ър and ёьхЁ=і" is recollected also;. Each of five songs of a cycle shakes by truthfulness of the musical story about a terrible grief. But most strongly the fourth impresses - "Ї often I think that you only left and soon will return фюьющ". It is the tragical culmination of a cycle. But, except musical associations, it is difficult to get rid of associations autobiographical. So many children's death shook Mahler's family that cannot be that the composer bore, wrote these terrible songs, without recollecting tragical pages of the family chronicle.

Through an orchestral fabric malerovskih symphonies quite often appear through contours of its vocal cycles and separate songs. It can be noticed already in the First symphony. Its plan has arisen in 1884 in Kassel when hardly somebody could assume in dvadtsatichetyrehletnem the conductor of the composer bearing so difficult symphonic idea and a design.

The Sir and the Person. In the introduction to I part, a step behind a step, there are images of the clearing up nature as though the fog dissipates and in the bird's hubbub distances of a green kingdom joyfully reveal. The main theme of I part, an exposition of the hero of the symphony begins. In it it is easy to learn "ё=Ёрэё=тѕ¦Ёхую яюфьрё=хЁі ". Its characteristic "яхЁхшэ=юэшЁютрэр" from vocal in tool sphere, but its same sense:

Went in the morning on fields,
On dewy grasses,
Zjablik has cheerfully sung:
Good morning, the lovely friend,
As all is fine around.

It is cheerful and in an youthful way pensive music of II part. In a basis se - lendler, the predecessor of the Viennese waltz. With deliberate gaucherie its rhythm is rapped out, and only on the average section there is a music full of charm which have been given to drink by shyness and freshness of a youthful recognition. When the symphony was executed for the first time, Mahler named its Symphonic poem and has united first two parts the general heading "- days ¦эюё=ш" and second two - "Охыютхёхёър  ъюьхфш ".

Definition "=Ёрушёхёър  шЁюэш " so often applied to Mahler's music, for the first time it has been addressed III part of its First symphony. Its hero, straight and frank, faces monstrous hypocrisy: the wood wild beasts bury the hunter, spilling thus floods of tears. A children's song "…Ёр=хч Їъют" it is translated by the composer from a major in a minor and it is transformed into music of funeral procession. It there begins the the soloist contrabass, which intonations, not so exact, hardly false as if associate with insincere lamentations of inhabitants of wood. Mahler named this part of the symphony "КЁрѕЁэ№ь a march in a manner -рыыю".

Hypocrisy is boundless: having paid a tribute to false sobbings, animals there and then start noisy commemoration under music purely kabatskogo a manner. Virtuous observers "ёшё=ю=№" were horrified from introduction "яю°ыюё=ш" in a music inner sanctum, in the symphony score, having forgotten that there is a bitter irony that with reference to a plan "Охыютхёхёъющ ъюьхфшш" (ironical reconsideration "…юцхё=тхээющ ъюьхфшш" Dante), - platitude is shown through magnifying glass. Crowns the symphony an image of the hero as though rising on a fresh dewy grass in mountains, to wise merge to the nature.

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