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George Enescu / George Enesku (a part II)

Event of paramount value was the composition in 1901 George Enesku of two Romanian rhapsodies for a symphonic orchestra.

Traditions rapsodicheskogo narrations about the national life, going from Sheet, from its Hungarian rhapsodies, are not simply apprehended, but also Enesku are continued. He has addressed not to a piano, and to an orchestra giving to possibility not only melodic, but also tembralnogo a reconstruction of character of a folk music. Each of two Rhapsodies has the shape, the person. The first rhapsody is penetrated tantsevalnostju. Here both ardent dancing, and plastic dialogues, and imitation of original receptions of game leutarov, and widely used intonations of an original song: "Л me is pour, and I want it яЁюяш=і".

The World of images and moods of the Second rhapsody absolutely other. It epichna; dojny archaic character is given tunes even. Music gives rise to memoirs on times dakov and getov, the tribes occupying the Romanian earths during immemorial times. Other line of sound images communicated in consciousness of the composer, possibly, with a heavy epoch of a Turkish yoke.

If about Enesku which have just stepped from the childhood, Massne spoke as about the master orkestrovki in Rhapsodies it has acted really fully armed with talent and the skill, multiplied by ardent love to the native earth.

Exaggeration will not compare Rapsodii Enesku on value for the Romanian music to value "-рьрЁшэёъющ" Glinka for history of Russian symphonic culture. Recollecting Tchaikovsky well-aimed definition, it is possible to tell that Romanian simfonizm the XX-th centuries, "ъръ an oak in цхыѕфх" consists in two Romanian rhapsodies George Enesku. There was a new young growth of the Romanian composers. Everyone has selected the way: M.Zhora (1891), T.Rogalski (1901), I.Perll (1900), A.Aleksandresku (1893-1959), the Dyne of Lipati, the talented pianist and the composer, so early died (1917-1950). But in creativity of each of them echoes of Rhapsodies of Enesku, the echoes which are giving rise to the response, the music sound.

Rhapsodies have brought Enesku an international recognition and the repertoire of tens orchestras and conductors have entered also. They repeatedly became a basis of choreographic performances.

Perfected the melodic style Godami Enesku. Having passed from variation development of intonational grain (like the receptions used leutarami), harmonious modifications of sound atmosphere, tembralno-impressive variants etc., it has come to otkristallizovavshimsja to melodic contours, daily studying at Bach in high art of expansion of melodic lines.

The Prelude from its First suite is stated by unison sounding of an orchestra. The composer has believed in completeness of expressive possibilities nothing of the supported melody. Gustav Mahler subdued by this music conducted the First suite of Enesku in New York in 1911.

The Life George Enesku in Paris, especially in poslekonservatorskie years, is filled energichnejshej by activity in all areas of creativity and ispolnitelstva. Without being content with the indefatigable composition of music (3 symphonies: 1905, 1912, 1919 Detsimet; string quartets, orchestral suites, cantatas, romances), performances with solo concerts, Enesku participates in the ensembles created by it: in a trio where he played a violin part, Furne - a violoncello part, and Kazella - one of the most outstanding Italian composers, contemporary Enesku - grand piano party; and also in a quartet where with it played Andri Kazadezjus, Lui Furne and Frits Schneider.

The List of its partners on sonatnym to evenings in which he plays that a violin part - the piano, includes such names: A.Korto, Z.Tibo, P.Kazals, A.Kazella, Rihard Strauss, B.Bartok, M.Ravel, I.Menuhin, D.Ojstrah, L.Oborin.

More half a century indefatigable concert activity of Enesku - the violinist, the pianist, the conductor lasts. But it is not limited to display of the mastery, the music. Enesku represents itself as the passionate propagandist of music, nezasluzhenno unknown or little-known. In it it is similar on the Sheet acquainting Europe with great classics and with the contemporaries.

Repeatedly Enesku united classical music in the whole cycles and acquainted with them the Romanian audience. Without exaggeration it is possible to name such concert cycles historical. He prodirizhiroval Beethoven's all nine symphonies, has played all its violin sonatas; the quartet organised by him from the Romanian musicians has played three-week term with breaks in two-three days Beethoven's all quartets. Twelve concerts have been devoted sonata history, from a XVIII-th century to the contemporaries, a little known to general public, such, as d'endi, A.Bertalen, F.Buzoni, L.Verne, G.Fore, A.Zhedalzh, K.Debjussi.

At the age of 66th years he has played Bach all six sonatas for a violin solo. Already in the evening of life it was the first executor in Romania a violin concert of Hachaturjana, the first in the homeland prodirizhiroval Shostakovich's Seventh symphony.

Its concert tours covered not only the European capitals where its each performance was event. He played and in zaholustjah, in small cities and the places located on the bank of Dnestr and the Rod. However so tireless activity had also a reverse of the medal - overfatigue. But anybody in kingdom Romania has made nothing that oberech Enesku from often unnecessary expenditure of creative energy that with the greatest expediency to concentrate forces of its talent, erudition, enthusiasm. In 1938 there was N.Lezera's which has caused in Romania many of rumours article, but nothing changed. The author wrote it: "-р° the genius George Enesku, the true sample of great creative force of the Romanian people in a musical field, is compelled to conduct a difficult life of the wandering musician, constantly to go abroad, to earn on a daily bread what in the homeland to it it is refused. At the age of 57 years, after the semicentenial wearisome work which traces all appear on its forehead more clearly, unless this star has not the right on ю=ф№§?" it is difficult to understand, how it was possible to Enesku to combine intense composer work with continuous artistic tours. Possibly, therefore the central product of all his life "¦фшя" one of the most interesting operas of the XX-th century, was created throughout many years. One of researchers of creativity of Enesku B. Kotljarov writes: "¦№ёыі about a writing of is musical-theatrical product has arisen at it in 1906. But on which plot to stop, Enesku could not solve for many years. At last, shaken by game of the known French tragedian Moon Sjulli in a title role "НрЁ  ¦фшяр" Sofokla, going in 1910 in "-юьхфш ИЁрэёхч" Enesku has made the т№сюЁ". But a plot choice the problem of creation of an opera did not dare yet. Among other questions arising thus, one was the major: Whether Enesku is prepared for creation of the ideologically-drama concept for transferring on an opera scene of antique tragedy of such complexity, as "¦фшя".


Many researchers, in particular R.Lejtes, find that on approaches to plan realisation "¦фшяр" the important role the Third symphony of Enesku has played. The composer has started it to write to a heat of the First World War and has ended in 1919. Enormous on scales, the Third symphony makes and corresponding impression. Events of military years, sufferings of people, sincere accidents, fatalizm and disbelief of one, persistent upholding of human rights, mankind have found others expression in three parts of the symphony, by analogy with "…юцхё=тхээющ ъюьхфшхщ" Dante of the named: " Ад" "Ошё=шышЁх" "ррщ". Such depths of philosophical judgement of the validity as in the Third symphony, Enesku yet did not reach. The following stage - "¦фшя".

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