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Dmitriy Shostakovich / Dmitry Shostakovich (1906 - 1975)

in the Spring of 1926 the orchestra of the Leningrad philharmonic society under control of Nikolay Malko has played for the first time Dmitry Shostakovich's First symphony. In the letter to the Kiev pianist L.Izarovoj N.Malko wrote: "Кюыіъю that has returned from a concert. Conducted for the first time the symphony young leningradtsa Miti Shostakovich. At me such sensation as if I have opened new page in the history of Russian ьѕч№ъш".

Reception of the symphony by public, an orchestra, the press it is impossible to name simple success, it was the triumph. Its procession on the most glorified symphonic platforms of the world became same. Over the symphony score Otto Klemperer, Arturo Toskanini, Bruno Walter, Herman Abendrot, Leopold Stokovsky were inclined. It, to conductors-thinkers, the parity of level of skill and age of the author seemed improbable. Full freedom from which the nineteen-year composer disposed of all resources of an orchestra for an embodiment of the ideas amazed, and ideas amazed with spring freshness.

Dmitry Shostakovich / Dmitriy Shostakovich Shostakovich's Symphony was really the first symphony from the new world over which the October thunder-storm was carried by. Contrast between the music full of cheerfulness, violent blossoming of young forces, the thin, timid lyrics and gloomy ekspressionistskim art of many foreign contemporaries of Shostakovich was amazing.

Passing a usual youthful stage, Shostakovich has confidently stepped in a maturity. This confidence was given to it by magnificent school. The native of Leningrad, it has got education within the precincts of the Leningrad conservatory in classes of pianist L.Nikolaeva and the composer M.Steinberg. Leonid Vladimirovich Nikolaev who has grown up one of most plodonosnyh of the branches of the Soviet pianistic school as the composer was pupil Taneeva, Tchaikovsky who in turn was the pupil. Maksimilian Oseevich Steinberg - the pupil Roman-korsakova and the follower of its pedagogical principles and methods. From the teachers Nikolaev and Steinberg have inherited perfect hatred to diletantizmu. In their classes the spirit of deep respect for work, to that Ravel liked to designate a word metier - craft reigned. To That so the culture of skill already in the first large product of the composer-young man was high.

Since then has passed many years. To the First symphony has increased fourteen more. There were fifteen quartets, two trios, two operas, three ballets, two piano, two violin and two violonchelnyh a concert, romancing cycles, collections of piano preludes and fugues, cantatas, oratorios, music to set of films and drama performances.

The Early period of creativity of Shostakovich coincides with the end of the twentieth years, time of rough discussions on questions at issue of the Soviet art culture when bases of a method and style of the Soviet art - socialist realism took shape. As well as many representatives young, and not only young generation of the Soviet art intelligency, Shostakovich pays a tribute to hobby for experimental works of director V.E.Mejerholda, Albana Berg's operas ("-юччхъ"), Ernest Ksheneka ("¤Ё№цюъ through =хэі" "-цюээш"), Feodor Lopuhova's ballet statements.

The Combination sharp groteskovosti with the deep tragic element, typical for many phenomena come from abroad ekspressionistskogo arts, too draws attention of the young composer. At the same time in it always there lives a worship for Bach, Beethoven, Tchaikovsky, Glinka, Berlioz. At one time he is excited with Mahler's grandiose symphonic epopee: depth of prisoners in it of ethical problems: the artist and a society, the artist and the present. But any of composers of the left epoch does not shake it how Musorgsky.

At the very beginning of Shostakovich's creative way, to a time of searches, hobbies, disputes, its opera "-юё" is born; (1928) - one of the most debatable products of its creative youth. In this opera on a Gogol plot, through notable influences mejerholdovskogo "рхтшчюЁр" musical clowns, looked through the striking traits which are making related "-юё" with Musorgsky's opera "гхэш=іср". In Shostakovich's creative evolution "-юё" has played a considerable role.

The Beginning of 30th years is noted in the biography of the composer by a stream of products of different genres. Here - ballets "Гюыю=ющ тхъ" and "…юы=" music to statement of Mejerholda of the play of Mayakovsky "-ыюя" music to several performances of the Leningrad Theatre of young workers (TRAM), at last, Shostakovich's first arrival to cinematography, music creation to films "+фэр" "Гыр=№х уюЁ№" "-ё=Ёхёэ№щ"; music to estradno-circus representation of the Leningrad Music hall "Лёыютэю ѕсш=№щ"; creative dialogue with adjacent arts: ballet, drama theatre, cinema; occurrence of the first romancing cycle (on verses of the Japanese poets) - the certificate of requirement of the composer to concretise a figurative system of music.

The Central place among Shostakovich's compositions of first half 30th years the opera "-хфш occupies Makbet Mtsensky ѕхчфр" ("-р=хЁшэр Ђчьрщыютр"). The basis of its dramatic art is made by N.Leskova's product, which genre the author has designated a word "юёхЁъ" as though underlining it authenticity, reliability of events, portretnost characters. Music "-хфш ¦ръсх=" - a tragical narration about a terrible epoch of an arbitrariness and lawlessness when in the person killed all human, its advantage, thoughts, aspirations, feelings; when were assessed and primitive instincts and the life chained in shackles corrected acts, went on never-ending paths of Russia. On one of them Shostakovich also has seen the heroine - were kupchihu, katorzhnitsu, an all-round price paid off for criminal happiness. Has seen - and has with emotion told to its destiny in the opera.

Hatred to the old world, the world of violence, lie and brutality is shown in Shostakovich's many products, in different genres. It - the strongest antithesis of positive images, the ideas defining artist's, public credo Shostakovich. The belief in invincible force of the Person, admiration of riches of the sincere world, sympathy to its sufferings, passionate thirst to participate in struggle for its light ideals - here the major lines of it credo. It affects especially full in its central, etapnyh products. Among them - one of the major, the Fifth symphony which has arisen in 1936, begun itself a new stage of the creative biography of the composer, the new chapter of history of the Soviet culture. In this symphony which it is possible to name "юя=шьшё=шёхёъющ =Ёрухфшхщ" the author comes to a deep philosophical problem of formation of the person of the contemporary.

Judging by Shostakovich's music, the symphony genre always was for it a tribune from which should say only the most important, most ardent speeches directed to achievement of the highest ethical purposes. A symphonic tribune vozdvignuta not for eloquence. It is base of the militant philosophical thought struggling for ideals of humanism, convicting harm and the meanness, as though once again confirming the well-known Goethe position:

Only that is worthy happiness and freedom,
Who for them goes every day on fight!

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