Shostakovich's Thirteenth symphony (1962) on a genre is close to an oratorio. It is written for unusual structure: a symphonic orchestra, chorus of basses and the soloist of a bass. The text basis of five parts of the symphony is made by verses of Evg. Evtushenko: "…рсшщ ЇЁ" "МьюЁ" "- ьрурчшэх" "Р=Ёр§ш" and "-рЁіхЁр". Idea of the symphony, its pathos - accusation of harm for the sake of struggle for the truth, for the person. And in this symphony the active Shostakovich active, offensive humanism affects.
After a seven-year break, in 1969, the Fourteenth symphony written for a chamber orchestra is created: string, a small amount of shock and two voices - a soprano and a bass. In the symphony Garcia Lorca, Guillaume Apollinera, M.Rilke and Wilhelm Kuechelbeker's verses sound, the symphony Devoted to Benjamin Brittenu is written, according to its author, under impression "¤хёхэ and dancings ёьхЁ=ш" M.P.Musorgsky. In magnificent article "Ђч depths уыѕсшэ" to the devoted Fourteenth symphony, Marietta Shaginjan wrote: "...Ох=№Ёэрфчр=р Shostakovich's symphony, the culmination of its creativity. The fourteenth symphony, - I would like to name its the first "Р=Ёрё= ьш Охыютхёхёъшьш" a new epoch, - convincingly speaks, are how much necessary to our time and profound treatment of moral contradictions, and tragical judgement of sincere tests ("ё=Ёрё=хщ"), through iskus which passes ёхыютхёхё=тю".
D.Shostakovich's Fifteenth symphony is composed in the summer of 1971. After a long-term break the composer comes back to purely tool score of the symphony. Light colour "шуЁѕ°хёэюую ёъхЁчю" I parts associates with images of the childhood. In music organically "тяшё№трх=ё " a theme from Rossini's overture "-шыіухыіь Кхыыі". Mourning music of the beginning of II part in gloomy sounding of copper group gives rise to thoughts on loss, on the first terrible grief. The ominous fantasy fills music of II part, by any lines reminding the fantastic world "+хыъѕэёшър". In the beginning of IV part Shostakovich again resorts to the citation. This time it is a theme of destiny from "-рыіъшЁшш" predetermining the tragical culmination of the further development.
Shostakovich's Fifteen symphonies - fifteen heads of annals-epopee of our time. Shostakovich became in numbers of those who will actively and directly transform the world. Its weapon - the music which has become by philosophy, philosophy - become by music.
Shostakovich's Creative aspirations cover all existing genres of music - from a mass song from "-ё=Ёхёэюую" to a monumental oratorio "¤хёэі about ыхёр§" operas, symphonies, tool concerts. The considerable section of its creativity is devoted the chamber music, one of which opuses - "24 to a prelude and ¶ѕуш" for a piano takes a special place. After Johann Sebastian Bach to a polyphonic cycle such and scale very few people ventured to touch. And matter is not in presence or absence of corresponding technics, special type of skill. "24 preludes and ¶ѕуш" Shostakovich not only the arch of polyphonic wisdom of the XX-th century, they the brightest indicator of force and pressure of the thinking getting into depth of the most complicated phenomena. This type of thinking is similar to an intellectual power of Kurchatova, Landau, Fermi and consequently preludes and Shostakovich's fugues amaze not only high academism of disclosing of secrets bahovskogo polyphonies, and first of all filosofichnostju the thinking getting really in "уыѕсшэ№ уыѕсшэ" the contemporary, motive forces, contradictions and pathos of an epoch of great transformations.
Near to symphonies the big place in Shostakovich's creative biography is occupied with its fifteen quartets. In this modest by quantity of executors ensemble the composer addresses to the thematic circle close to volume about which it narrates in symphonies. Not casually some quartets arise almost simultaneously with symphonies, being their original "ёяѕ=эшърьш".
In symphonies the composer addresses to millions, continuing in this sense a line bethovenskogo simfonizma, quartets are addressed narrower, chamber circle. It shares that excites with it, pleases, oppresses, of what is dreamt.
Any of quartets has no the special name, helping to understand its maintenance. Anything, except a serial number. And nevertheless their sense is clear to everyone who loves and is able to listen to chamber music. The first quartet - the coeval of the Fifth symphony. In its cheerful system close to neoclassicism, with a thoughtful saraband of I part, on-gajdnovski sparkling the ending, a flitting waltz and heart-felt Russian zapevom an alto, lingering and clear, feel healing from the heavy thoughts overcoming the hero of the Fifth symphony.
We remember, how in days of war the lyrics in verses, songs, letters as multiplied sincere forces lyrical heat of several heart-felt phrases was important. It gets a waltz and a romance of the Second quartet written in 1944.
As images of the Third quartet are unlike against each other. In it both carelessness of a youth, and painful visions "ёшы чыр" and field pressure of repulse, and the lyrics adjoining to philosophical meditation. The fifth quartet (1952) anticipating the Tenth symphony, and in even bolshej degrees the Eighth quartet (I960) are filled by tragical visions - memoirs of military years. In music of these quartets, as well as in the Seventh, Tenth symphonies, forces of light and force of darkness sharply resist. On the title page of the Eighth quartet appears: "¤рь =ш victims of fascism and тющэ№". This quartet is written within three days in Dresden where Shostakovich has left for work on a film music "¤ =і the days, five эюёхщ".
Along with quartets in which it is reflected "сюыі°ющ ьшЁ" with its conflicts, events, vital collisions, Shostakovich has quartets which sound as diary page. In the First they are cheerful; in the Fourth speak about self-deepening, contemplation, rest; in the Sixth - pictures of a unification with the nature, deep tranquility reveal; in the Seventh and the Eleventh - devoted to memory of close people, music reaches almost speech expressiveness, especially in the tragical culminations.
In the Fourteenth quartet characteristic features of Russian melosa are especially notable. In І musical images grasp parts a romantic manner of the statement of wide amplitude chuvstvovany: from pathetic admiration before beauty of the nature to impulses of the sincere confusion which are coming back to rest and tranquility of a landscape. Russian on spirit forces to recollect an adagio of the Fourteenth quartet having started singing an alto in the First quartet. In III - a final part - music is outlined by the dancing rhythms, sounding that more, less distinctly. Estimating Shostakovich, D.B.Kabalevsky's Fourteenth quartet speaks about "сх=§ютхэёъюь эрёрых" its high perfection.
The Fifteenth quartet has sounded for the first time in the autumn of 1974. Its structure is unusual, it consists of six parts following without interruption one for another. All parts go in slow rate: the Elegy, the Serenade, the Intermezzo, the Nocturne, the Mourning march and the Epilogue. The fifteenth quartet amazes with depth of the philosophical thought so peculiar to Shostakovich in many products and this genre.
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