It is indicative that any of fifteen symphonies written by Shostakovich does not leave from the present. About the First it was told above, the Second - symphonic dedication to October, the Third - "¤хЁтюьрщёър ". In them the composer addresses to A.Bezymenskogo and S.Kirsanov's poetry more brightly to open pleasure burning in them and solemnity of revolutionary festivals.
But already from the Fourth symphony written to 1936, the world of joyful comprehension of a life, good and affability includes any another's, spiteful force. It accepts different appearances. Somewhere she roughly goes by the ground, the covered spring greens, a cynical grin profanes cleanliness and sincerity, bears malice, threatens, foretells destruction. It is internally close to the gloomy themes threatening to human happiness from pages of scores of last three symphonies of Tchaikovsky.
Both in the Fifth and in II part of the Sixth symphony of Shostakovich it, this terrible force, has an effect. But only in the seventh, Leningrad symphony it podymaetsja in all growth. Suddenly in the world of philosophical meditations, pure dreams, sports vivacity, on-levitanovski poetical landscapes severe and terrible force interferes. It has come behind that displace this pure world and to confirm a gloom, blood, death. Insinuatingly, hardly audible rustle of a small drum from apart reaches, and on its accurate rhythm the rigid, angular theme acts. With stupid mehanistichnostju repeating eleven times and gathering forces, it acquires hoarse, growling, any shaggy soundings. And here in all frightening nakedness by the ground goes chelovekozver.
In a counterbalance "=хьх эр°хё=тш " in music arises and gets stronger "=хьр ьѕцхё=тр". The bassoon monologue is extremely sated by bitterness of losses, forcing to recollect nekrasovskie lines: "Кю tears of poor mothers, to it not to forget the children who were lost on bloody эштх". But however are mournful there were losses, the life declares itself constantly. This idea penetrates the Scherzo - II part. And from here, through reflexions (III part), conducts to victoriously sounding ending.
The composer wrote The legendary Leningrad symphony in the house constantly shaken with explosions. In one of the performance Shostakovich spoke: "Р a pain and pride I looked at a favourite city. And it stood, singed by the fires, tempered in the fights, tested deep sufferings of the fighter, and was finer in the severe greatness. As was not to love this city, erected Peter, not to tell to all world about its glory, about courage of its defenders... My weapon was ьѕч№ър".
Passionately hating harm and violence, the composer-citizen convicts the enemy, the one who sows the wars plunging the people in abysses of disasters. That is why the war theme for a long time arrests to itself thoughts of the composer. It sounds in grandiose on scales, on depth of tragical conflicts of the Eighth, composed in 1943, in the Tenth and Thirteenth symphonies, in the piano trio written to memory of I.I.Sollertinskogo. This theme gets and into the Eighth quartet, in music to films "¤рфхэшх …хЁышэр" "-ё=Ёхёр on ¦ыісх" "¦юыюфр утрЁфш " In article devoted to first anniversary of a Victory Day, Shostakovich wrote: "¤юсхфр war which was conducted for the sake of a victory obliges not to a lesser degree, than. Fascism defeat - only a stage in uncontrollable offensive movement of the person, in realisation of progressive mission Soviet эрЁюфр".
The Ninth symphony, Shostakovich's first post-war product. It has been executed for the first time in the autumn of 1945, in some measure this symphony has not justified expectations. In it there is no monumental solemnity which could embody images of victorious end of war in music. But in it another: direct pleasure, a joke, laughter as if huge weight has fallen from shoulders, and for the first time for so much years it was possible without curtains, without blackouts to switch on light, and all windows of houses were lighted by pleasure. And only in a penultimate part there is as though a severe reminder on the endured. But for a short while the twilight sets in - music again comes back in the world of light of fun.
Eight years separate the Tenth symphony from the Ninth. Such break in Shostakovich's symphonic annals never before was not. And again before us the product full of tragical collisions, the deep world outlook problems, grasping the pathos of a narration about an epoch of great shocks, an epoch of great hopes of mankind.
The Special place in the list of symphonies of Shostakovich is occupied the with the Eleventh and the Twelfth.
Before to address to the Eleventh symphony, napisannnoj in 1957, it is necessary to recollect Ten poems for the mixed chorus (1951) on words of revolutionary poets XIX - the beginnings of XX century. Verses of poets-revolutionaries: L.Radina, A.Gmyreva, A.Kotsa, V.Tana-Bogoraza have inspired Shostakovich on the music creation which each step is composed by it, and at the same time rodstven to songs of a revolutionary underground, student's shodok, sounding and in casemates of Butyrok, both in Shushensky, and in Ljunzhjumo, to Capri, to songs which were also family tradition in the house of parents of the composer. Its grandfather - Boleslav Boleslavovich Shostakovich - for participation in the Polish revolt of 1863 has been banished. Its son, Dmitry Boleslavovich, the father of the composer, in student's years and after the termination of the Petersburg university is close connected with Lukashevich's family, one of which members together with Alexander Ilichej Ulyanov prepared attempt on III. 18 years were spent by Lukashevich in the Shlisselburgsky fortress.
One of the strongest impressions of all life of Shostakovich is dated on April, 3rd, 1917, day of arrival of V.I.Lenin to Petrograd. The composer here is how tells about it. "Ї witnessed events of October revolution, was among those who listened to Vladimir Ilicha on the area before the Finnish station in day of its arrival to Petrograd. And, though I was then is very young, it was for ever embodied in mine ярь =ш".
The revolution Theme has entered into a flesh and blood of the composer in a childhood and reached manhood in it together with consciousness growth, becoming one of its bases. This theme otkristallizovalas in the Eleventh symphony (1957) carrying the name "1905 уюф". Its each part has the name. On them it is possible to imagine idea and product dramatic art clearly: "-тюЁчютр яыюЁрфі" "9 этрЁ " "-хёэр ярь =і" "-рср=". The symphony is penetrated by intonations of songs of a revolutionary underground: "Рыѕ°рщ" "+Ёхё=рэ=" "-№ zhertvoju ярыш" "…хёэѕщ=хёі, =шЁрэ№" "-рЁ°рт эър". They give to the sated musical narration especial agitation and reliability of the historical document.
Devoted to Vladimir Ilicha Lenin's memory, the Twelfth symphony (1961) - product of epic power - continues tool skaz about revolution. As well as in the eleventh, program names of parts give absolutely distinct representation about its maintenance: "рхтюы¦чшюээ№щ ¤х=ЁюуЁрф" "ррчышт" "+тЁюЁр" "ГрЁ ёхыютхёхё=тр".
< we come back - it is readable further >