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Dmitriy Kabalevskiy / Dmitry Kabalevsky (a part III)

Four years the break between an opera "- юуэх" lasted; and the following opera. These years have been given other genres, mainly chamber. Among them and noted by the State award of I degree the Second string quartet, along with two piano sonatas reflected disturbing and tragical events of military years. It is indicative that these products, despite of kamernost expressive means, do not enter contradictions with scales of events. Music of a quartet and sonatas suggests that speech about terrible events is conducted from the first person. From here arises in an especial way exciting "І¶¶хъ= яЁшёѕ=ё=тш " the author, sensation of a direct narration.

One more chamber product written between two operas, in my opinion, has especially great value as approach to "Рхьіх КрЁрёр". It is a question of a cycle of Twenty four preludes for a piano. An originality of a cycle and volume that each prelude develops a melodic material of Russian national song, being guided thus and by a figurative, semantic system of its text. 24 preludes Kabalevsky, near to Shostakovich, Schedrin's similar cycles, - have enriched a chamber genre of the Soviet music, having brought the new lines caused by the reference to a national song.

At the same time, it is difficult to overestimate value of this product for expansion and deepening of knowledge of Russian national melosa on which basis there were musical images of heroes of an epopee about a family of Tarasa Jatsenko.

Playwright S.Tsenin on a material to move "-хяюъюЁхээ№х" B.Gorbatov has created the opera libretto accurately developing four subject lines: the people struggling with invaders; Tarasa, overcoming passive vigilance and becoming one of leaders of national struggle; the deep conflict between Tarasom and his son Andrey; and lines of the youth which has entered struggle against fascists.

"Рхьі  КрЁрёр" inherits traditions of Russian opera classics. Arias are given as portrait characteristics of characters; the choral episodes organically entered in action, in many places playing the central role are widely developed, there, where the people, unsubdued and nepokorimyj represent itself as the basic hero of an opera. Developing own style of a youth song, Kabalevsky has composed full of charm of a youth and cleanliness a song which begins to sing Nastja, daughter Tarasa: "Л old at a village fence of darling village we left friends, perhaps, эртёхуфр".

"Рхьі  КрЁрёр" - an opera sated simfonizmom. In it traditions of Russian classics too affect. The theme of Tarasa sounding at the very beginning of the overture, contains a minor and major inclination, it is courageous and severe. It can be treated as the generalised characteristic of the people, as an epigraph. Interesting line notes opera music: the Soviet people are very accurately individualised. Taras, Nazar, Andrey, Evfrosinja, Nastja, Pavka are allocated especially by individual traits. The fascist camp is outlined by the general thematic circle. Here, in a counterbalance of song elements of music of heroes, prevail "ё=хЁ=№х" tool turns, "чршуЁрээ№х" formulas of a march, a waltz with the stupid, fallen asleep chords of accompaniment. Fascists are not individualised, they are generalised in the uniform image precisely designated by a word "тЁру".

The Success accompanied statements "Рхьіш КрЁрёр" at many theatres. After a premiere at the Moscow Theatre of K.S.Stanislavsky and V.I.Nemirovich-Danchenko in 1947, the opera has been put in a new wording at the Leningrad Theatre of S.M. Kirov in 1950, then - in Kuibyshev, Riga and at theatres of Poland, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia.

"Рхьі  КрЁрёр" has occupied one of the central places in D.Kabalevskogo's music. In 1950 it has been awarded the State award of the USSR.

The Modern theme does not leave Kabalevsky and in the following opera finished in 1955. This time its choice has fallen on the play of Vs. Ivanov "…Ёюэхяюхчф 14-69" with the big success going on many scenes of drama theatres. An opera under the name "-шъш=р -хЁ°шэшэ" for the first time has sounded on a scene of the Bolshoi theatre in the autumn of 1955, then - in many cities, including in Tallinn. The scenic biography "-шъш=№ -хЁ°шэшэр" is less bright, than at "Рхьіш КрЁрёр" despite advantages in characteristics of two contrast heroes - a Bolshevik of Peklevanova and White Guard officer Nezelasova, nesmotrja and that the header hero of an opera - commander Nikita Vershinin is depicted by an impressing aria "Ряш= =рщур" and mourning ariozo "¤ЁюЁрщ, Sin …ш-ѕ".

To an opera genre Kabalevsky comes back only in 1968, when to a plot of the book of Siberian writer Ili Lavrova "-ё=Ёхёр with ёѕфюь" writes an opera "Рхё=Ё№". Here its subject scheme: two sisters dream to become navigators of long voyage. Asya achieves the. Yaroslav under the influence of feeling of love is selected by other way. An interesting image - the poet It is left Chemizov, the friend of both sisters, throughout an opera making comments on action. Unlike the previous operas, in "Рхё=Ёр§" the composer is not limited to traditional arias, the ensembles, quite often braking action. Dramatic art "Рхё=хЁ" speaks about cinema influence, with crushing inherent in it on
Small episodes, with more faltering rhythm. Tone of an opera as specifies the critic - "фютхЁш=хыіэю-шэ=шьэ№щ" reminding a manner of conversations-lectures of the Kabalevsky.

By the way, about Kabalevsky-lecturer. It seems to me that this kind of its activity does not give in to the analysis, especially, if it is a question about its manner to speak with children. It cannot learn at it, it cannot be grown up, brought up in itself, because in dialogue of the musician Kabalevsky with children usual analytical definitions: simply, clearly, eloquently, figuratively - give nothing. Often about what speaks to children Kabalevsky and as he speaks - not so simply. In its speech absolutely there is no that would remind oratorical eloquence. He seldom, extremely seldom uses figurativeness methods. Remain - clearness as to me it is thought, a component one of the main distinctive features of the person Kabalevsky - the person, the composer, the citizen, the teacher, the public figure, scientific. In many slavic languages " ёэ№щ" - a synonym "ётх=ыюую". With reference to Kabalevsky and it coincides.

One of trudnejshih tests for the person, got used to communicate with an audience, with fellow citizens of the different trades, different cultural levels, - a meeting, performance before a children's audience, the composition of books for children. Not without reason M.Gorky has thrown the thought which has become by the winged: "-ы  it is necessary to write children the same as for adults, only ыѕё°х". This aphorism Bitter as is impossible more approaches to a considerable part, Dmitry Borisovicha's creativity. Three opuses, following one after another (48th, 49th and 50th) include three concerts: violin, violonchelnyj and the Third piano. In three words - "¤юёт Ёрх=ё  Soviet ьюыюфхцш" - that makes a basis of outlook of Dmitry Borisovicha, its wise sight at the present in which bowels the future is already concluded is put.

D.B.Kabalevsky - the born tutor, the person hating a statics, aspiring to live and create in rate of time. It is remembered, at any debatable meeting it has brought down the anger on the talented composer. Its anger has been invested with the short formula: "¦№ all we grow, we write, we suffer failures, we rejoice to successes each other, and you subsist on echoes of the successes of thirty-year prescription. From time... It is impossible to laugh the matter off. You ю=ё=рыш".

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