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Benjamin Britten / Benjamin Britten (a part II)

In small town (where there is an opera action) the life of each of its inhabitants is connected with the sea. "-№ё°хх юсЁхё=тю" the small town, impregnated with hypocrisy, suffers as inevitable harm the mistress of a tavern and its two nieces, it is compelled to suffer the disgusting addict, the main spring of all gossips and intrigues, only because it the widow of the agent of the East Indian company, but "юсЁхё=тю" with open hostility concerns Peter Grajmsu. The Protagonist of an opera is completely not similar to the hero against whom small people have unfairly taken up arms. Grajmsa it is easy to accuse of all those acts which have put it out of a society, where not all people so nikchemny. With sympathy concern it only retired shkiper and the druggist, and teacher Ellen loves this severe, unsociable person. She understands that many acts of Grajmsa, ridiculous, and sometimes and terrible, are caused by that it izuverilsja in good, human understanding, in that, as for it can be both a smile, and warm heat. Peter Grajms perishes. It one departures in the sea not to return.

Britten does not accuse and does not protect the hero, and shines a labyrinth of its sincere world, showing, as the life is terrible, capable to spoil the person and through a chain of misfortunes to withdraw it in a night gloom of storming ocean, in a non-existence...

In "¤ш=хЁх +Ёрщьёх" the talent of Brittena - the musical playwright for the first time has affected. He achieves constantly, from a picture to a picture, growing interest of listeners by unusual comparison of episodes solo, ansamblevyh, choral; it proslaivaet scenic action by symphonic interludes - the intervals influencing with the big force on listeners. In six interludes - "ррёётх=" "П=юЁь" "-юёъЁхёэюх ѕ=Ёю" "Гют ьюЁ " "-ѕээ№щ ётх=" "…хёяЁюётх=эр  эюёі" - dramaturgic marks of action, its symphonic implied senses are reflected.

"¤ш=хЁ +Ёрщьё" for the first time in 1945 Wells is put in London by theatre Sedler. The premiere has poured out in event of national value, having revived for a long time the lost glory of English music. A premiere "¤ш=хЁр +Ёрщьёр" became the important phenomenon and the international value, having opposed, to mentioned sights at an opera, as on become obsolete genre, talented product, deeply emotional, democratic on language and most recent. Probably that "¤ш=хЁ +Ёрщьё" in an especial way has grasped the dramatic nature of people, a lot of terrible tested in days of just terminated war. The first opera of Brittena has bypassed all largest scenes of the world.

A year later the Glajdenbernsky opera theatre, which troupe has soon received the name of Small opera troupe of Kovent-Gardensky theatre, has staged a new opera of Brittena - "¤юЁѕурэшх -ѕъЁхчшш". The destiny of Lukretsii, the wife of Roman commander Lutsija Kollatina, is described for the first time by Tatsitom, and then was many times retold by poets, writers, playwrights, including Shakespeare.

The Tsar of Tarquinii for lack of Kollatina has outraged upon Lukretsiej. It has committed suicide, being not to take down in forces of a shame, In the opera of Britten, passionately being indignant, shows bestial essence of Tarkvinija and becomes in protection of Lukretsii. One of the most tremendous scenes of an opera is played in a bedchamber. Against the true, loving wife of the commander of Tarquinii turns force, meanness, the weapon. But before to make spectators witnesses of a tragical scene, the composer tells about Lukretsii music of a lullaby of a song. In it - cleanliness of a serene children's dream. The Song about ivushke - Desdemona agonal song is recollected. "¤юЁѕурэшх -ѕъЁхчшш" - the first opera, in which Britten addresses to chamber structure: six executors of scenic roles, including and minor; thirteen persons in an orchestra and as the opera genre is approached to antique tragedy, the chorus which is making comments on action, anticipating by the remarks scenic events is entered. But chorus parties are charged. . To two singers: to the tenor and a mezzo-soprano. It is interesting that two basic executors "Ёюыш §юЁр" in Small opera troupe there were outstanding actors Peter Pirs and Silvija Fisher.

Arhaiziruja musical language "¤юЁѕурэш  -ѕъЁхчшш" Britten will not stylise it. "яюф рэ=шёэюё=і" understanding that theatre not a museum. It as though recreates theatre Pyorsella and Handel language causing direct associations with style of opera retelling of events of an ancient history. To greatness, severity, the force, going from gendelevskih images, the touching, feminity, trepetnost are opposed, forcing to recollect a manner of the letter of Pyorsella.

A Year later after a premiere "-ѕъЁхчшш" Britten conducts a premiere of a new opera - "+ыісхЁ= +хЁЁшэу". After two tragical operas which are coming to an end with suicide of heroes, "+ыісхЁ= +хЁЁшэу" makes at first sight strange impression. Not Tatsit and Shakespeare, the defined character and style of one opera, not George Krabb who has inspired the composer by the severe realism in the description of a life of tragedies "+юЁюфър" - whose story addresses for a plot of the third opera of Britten "ЂчсЁрээшъ Mrs. Мёёюэ" to Maupassant; it is transferred on English soil. Opera action is developed in the small English small town Loksforde similar to the French colleague - the city of Kloshmerl which has become famous for memorable scandal. Similarity here not in a plot, and in receptions of satirical derision remote "=ш°ш yes уырфш" indestructibility "эЁртё=тхээ№§ ѕё=юхт". The opera begins a scene in the house of lady Billous where the respectable old lady informs gathered about the award in twenty five pounds, the intending Queen of May, the most moral girl of a city. Alas, any of candidates does not correspond to competition conditions. All know all about all. Then break tradition: "-ьхё=ю Queens we will select -юЁюы !" the Choice falls on Albert Herringa - arhidobrodetelnogo the guy from a greengrocery. General triumph! Solemn delivery of the award! And, at last, an outcome: every other day after triumph of virtue of the hero take from a roadside ditch where it has got, having visited preliminary a tavern and still any places about which in a society speak, not podymaja an eye …

As it was already specified, music "+ыісхЁ=р +хЁЁшэур" the vivacity, organichnostju occurrence of ensembles, wide layers of vocal episodes associates with receptions of the letter of the Italian comic opera. But intonations specifically English both in melodic constructions and in recitatives are constantly heard.

The Following opera score of Brittena demands the historical inquiry. In the XVIII-th century beginning when aristocratic London excitedly listened to Handel's magnificent operas and Bononchini, - the art transferred on English soil from Germany and Italy, - in the lower class of fans of theatre which was not supposed in luxurious auditoriums, the idea of a new genre - operas-parodies has arisen. John Gej - the writer and John Pepush - the musician have composed an opera which musical material developed and varied street songs, sentimental ballads, dances of social bottoms. So has arisen "+яхЁр эшЁш§" having noisy and almost the scandalous success caused by fascination of a plot, played among thieves, swindlers, buyers of stolen property, cheerful maidens, small market "фхыічют" and other ljuda, shnyrjajushchego on back streets of the London markets and brothels. In 200 years Bertolt Brecht has written "КЁх§уЁю°ют№щ Ёюьрэ" transformed by composer Kurtom Vail in "КЁх§уЁю°ютѕ¦ юяхЁѕ" 40 years not descending from repertoire of hundreds operetta and drama theatres.

It was necessary to possess the big courage that on the basis of product of two English authors of a XVIII-th century to write the new edition leaning against melodies of John Pepusha. New "+яхЁр эшЁш§" Brittena, certainly, falls outside the limits editorial editing of music of Pepusha. It peresochinena also is commented by the composer of the XX-th century.

Here already the fourth opera product publishes Britten. A modern drama "¤ш=хЁ +Ёрщьё" antique tragedy "¤юЁѕурэшх -ѕъЁхчшш" satire on an English society of the Victorian epoch "+ыісхЁ= +хЁЁшэу" and accusation of customs of English capital of a XVIII-th century. It is easy to notice that at wide amplitude of epoch, genres, plots of Britten spends through thought on harm, platitude, world criminality where low passions where hypocrisy and hypocrisy are covered "яюыюцхэшхь in юсЁхё=тх" reign; where the spirit of purchase and sale covers not only three-cheap market transactions with conscience. Indignation and deep sympathy, an ironical smile and caustic satirical intonation, awe of cleanliness and ardent accusation of harm, - such is amplitude of sincere movements of the composer, in each product taking of a clear position - the certain relation to heroes of is musical-scenic action. Ethical ideal of Brittena - humanism, but not that its version which is expressed by passive sympathy or so bezdejstvennym harm censure. In creativity of Brittena the humanism affects in aspiration to involve the widest audience in a circle of ethical problems, to grasp it, to call for effective forms of struggle against harm. (Products, the facts testifying to how Britten creatively reacted to the acute problems born by the present stage of struggle against forces of reaction will be more low resulted.)

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