In the history of music it is possible to count many products which occurrence excited minds, sowed grains of discussions, ssorilo friends, caused thunders and lightnings of semi-official organs, split audiences on "ю=чют and фх=хщ". More often it were operas, symphonies, ballets, that is genres monumental, "ёюышфэ№х". With chamber and furthermore piano music anything similar done not happen and, appear, could not happen. But here in 1911, in Budapest, for the first time has sounded "-рЁтрЁёъюх рыыхуЁю" Bartoka Is white and at once has guarded a hall. In the underlined rhythm of this small piano play, in the angular melody, much seeming deprived and shades habitual "ьхыюфшёэюё=ш" in a piano roar as if this noble tool played backhand, the frightening force which is stopping at nothing, from a dense antiquity was felt, can be prehistoric distances. Music precisely answered the name, it was really similar on omuzykalennoe barbarity. But people unbiassed have felt, as this is talented throwing down a challenge "ьѕч№ърыіэюьѕ ѕ¦=ѕ" product, how many creative courage is enclosed in deliberate "эхёюуырёютрээюё=і" two hands playing different tonalities. The talent of this unusual music understood by one part of an audience, has caused an applause; singularity, deliberate roughness of music, shocking other part of public, has been given a hostile reception.
"-рЁтрЁёъюх рыыхуЁю" Is white; for two years has outstripped "-хёэѕ ёт Ёхээѕ¦" Stravinsky, for three years - "Ръш¶ёъѕ¦ ё¦ш=ѕ" Prokofiev - two grandiose scores bearing storm charges of energy, capable to take down, subvert, sweep all on the way. Whether this energy of a pas certain object, or it "тюыіэю" has been directed; stormed, how a thunder-storm in the nature? Bartok answers it with clearness peculiar to it: "- to music of this sort we subconsciously aspired, tired with love to prolixity and garrulity Ёюьрэ=шчьр". Possibly, not only antiromantic tendencies make related Bartoka with Stravinsky and Prokofiev, but also and the protest against excessive refinement, refinement of musical impressionism to which each of them to some extent rendered tribute in young years.
Imja Bartoka known to musical circles of the European countries and earlier, after 1911 began to draw wider attention. One of the most considerable heads of history of the European music of the XX-th century and the whole epoch of development of the Hungarian musical culture is connected with this name.
The Person and the musician of exclusive originality, it only in days of an apprenticeship followed in the footsteps of the predecessors. All further life it bravely went without thinking about traditions, rules and interdictions, trusting only to the creative belief.
Like the majority of musicians, Bartok began to practise music in a childhood. Mother to which wise advice he listened to her death was its first musical tutor. He studied in a composition at Laslo Erkelja - the son of well-known opera composer Ferentsa Erkelja - "тхэухЁёъюую Рьх=рэ№" as it often name. The formation of Bartok was finished in the Budapest musical academy where Janosh Kessler on a composition, and on a piano - Ishtvan Toman were its teachers, by the pupil of Sheet. The higher estimation of the young musician at the academy termination was that pedagogical sinklit has refused to examine it. Gratitude of Bartok has played the Spanish rhapsody of Sheet as one of professors was expressed, "фы pleasures яЁшёѕ=ё=тѕ¦Ёш§". Bartok already in early years is white had a reputation for the pianist of the highest level. In 1903 at the desire of group of teachers of academy he has played under the orchestral score "гшчэі ухЁю " Riharda Strauss, in some days has repeated it for plenum of teachers of academy, but already by heart and after this has been invited on same "ёхрэё" to Vienna where hearings about phenomenal execution of the most complicated score have reached.
Early products of Bartoka testify to influences of Sheet, Wagner, Brams. Neo-romantic trends define a choice that, verses in vocal products, in particular its reference to Heine, the composition "-¦сютэ№§ яхёхэ" for dvuhgolosnogo chorus from a piano.
The Hungarian national character of music For the first time has distinctly an effect on Four songs on verses of Lajosha Posha. Composing these songs, Bartok was far from thought seriously to take up the problems folkloristiki. To them it still will come. At that time he was convinced quite by ardent rhapsodies of Sheet, he did not doubt national which Hungarian sources. Later he was convinced that its great predecessor selected a material for the rhapsodies with a loose rein to their ethnographic cleanliness and authenticity.
Bartok, the person much reflecting over destinies of Hungary, a crown living under burden Gabsburgov often arguing with friends not only on musical, but also on political themes, has conceived monumental product of patriotic character. So in 1903 the symphonic poem "-ю°ѕ=" was born; devoted to national hero Lajoshu Koshutu, the leader of the Hungarian revolution of 1848. Ten-private program product of Bartoka had obviously expressed publicistic character. Executed for the first time in 1904 goal, the symphonic poem had a wide public resonance. The greatest indignation of supporters Gabsburgov was caused by VIII part, in which deliberately deformed, translated of a major in a minor, the melody of the Austrian national hymn is spent.
The Poem "-ю°ѕ=" become by appreciable event of a musical life of Hungary, has opened itself the never-ending list of compositions of Bartoka. Within several years there are Rhapsodies for a piano and an orchestra, substantially developing traditions of Sheet; then - Twenty Hungarian songs for a voice and a piano - result of one of folklore "т№ырчюъ" Bartoka; behind them - more than twenty piano plays, including the nurseries constructed on a material of national songs and dances.
"Гфхёі the country melody plays exclusively a role zapeva, - wrote Bartok, - that is near to it and under it is important... It is important, that musical attires in which we dress a melody, always it was possible to deduce from the melody and its separate characteristic features - obvious or hidden; it is necessary, that a melody and everything that we to it add, made impression indissoluble хфшэё=тр".
Not only the Hungarian music involved and carried away Bartoka. Music entered Into a circle of its research and creative interests Romanian, Slovak, Ukrainian, Arabian, Serbian, Turkish, music of the American Negroes and Indians. Together with other outstanding Hungarian musician, Zoltanom Kodaem (1882-1967), the composer and it is musical-public figure, Bartok has created new, immeasurably more exact and progressive technique of research of musical folklore in a close connection with studying of poetic texts and the images connected to a rhythm and intonations. Bartok has found set of the examples confirming that in the Hungarian national creativity many songs and tool folk tunes, especially violin, do not keep within in standard and to a certain extent levelled system of record of intervals that the so-called semitone not is the minimum element zvukorjada as are possible both quarters, and thirds of tone fixed in national ispolnitelstve.
Possibly, from here, from deep sources of a folk music, law of which figurative maintenance he has learnt to understand and in own way to realise, and there was that protogenic, tart and frightening, as guttural barrackings of an unfamiliar tribe music which was found out for the first time in "-рЁтрЁёъюь рыыхуЁю".
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