Is white Is white
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Bela Bartok / Bartok (a part III)

Bartok Is white has passed through some phases in mutual relations between own creativity and folklore. In early years, following Sheet, he addressed to original materials and "Ёх=ѕ°шЁютры" their harmonious paints and an is impressive-masterly variation. Quite often in the European literature on Bartoke it is mentioned Musorgsky's name, the composer who has influenced the Hungarian colleague. It is a question not of influence of music of Musorgsky, and about influence of the principles underlying its creativity, - the principles going, finally, from Glinka: not to borrow, and to study at a folk music.

In the scientific work "-хэ gerskaja яхёэ " published in 1924 and translated on many languages, Bartok analyzes communications between an intonatsionno-rhythmic system of a song, its text images and a country life. The book of Bartoka became classical research about national musical creativity.

When in 1930 Bartok has written "Cantata Profana" ("Ртх=ёъѕ¦ ърэ=р=ѕ") for two choruses, soloists and an orchestra, it summarised the researches in folklore, without resorting to original melodic materials. In a basis of a plot of a cantata the Romanian folk song about the father which nine sons except hunting did not wish to be engaged in anything has laid down. Somehow having left in wood, they were gone. The father has found them, but they have turned to deer and have refused to come back home. They became a nature part.

Both in "-хЁхт ээюь яЁшэчх" and in "Ртх=ёъющ ърэ=р=х" Bartok sings of wisdom and beauty of the nature, having something in common with Mahler, great panteistom. Here it widely uses reception Hungarian national ispolnitelstva which name "parlando rubato". It is free, almost speech intonirovanie the tool text. Such tool recitatives, extremely expressive, become one of typical lines of many products of Bartoka.

Among compositions of 30th years, near to a brilliant Violin concert, the central place occupies "¦ѕч№ър for string, shock and ёхыхё=№" - one of the most outstanding symphonic products of the XX-th century. Bartok has limited itself to string structure of an orchestra, having planted at the left and to the right of the conductor the string group divided in two, and in the piano centre, a harp, litavry, others shock and chelestu. I part - strictly traditional fugue, slow music of thoughtful character. With it II part, Allegro, written in sonatnoj to the form contrasts on rate and character. In the following part of Bartok as though transfers to conditions of modern music listovskie receptions rapsodicheskogo "ёърч№трэш " improvizirovanie. Here many coloristic unexpectedness: glissando litavr, special reception zvukoizvlechenija at string, giving almost flejtovuju sonority, masterly dialogues of a piano, chelesty, harps. In a final part "¦ѕч№ър" with the greatest definiteness sounds on-vengerski; It has come on native soil.

"¦ѕч№ър for string, shock and ёхыхё=№" it is written by request of the Basel chamber orchestra to commemoration of its 10 anniversary. Since then (1936) it was strongly fixed in repertoire of leading symphonic orchestras of the world, including Soviet orchestras.

To "¦ѕч№ъх" - on time and on style - the Sonata for 2 pianos and shock, product, in own way unique for of this kind the chamber ensemble appears for the first time adjoins. If to speak about ancestors of such ensemble it is possible to name "Ртрфхсъѕ" Stravinsky, appeared in 1923.

In the late thirties Bartok has finished the huge work of eleven years named it "¦шъЁюъюёьюёюь" and consisting of 153 plays for a piano of different degree of difficulty and complexity. "¦шъЁюъюёьюё" shows unique in the piano literature the anthology of creativity of the composer in one genre.

The Considerable contribution to chamber music of Bartok has brought the 6th quartets created throughout three decades. Near to Shostakovich's quartets they make one of the deepest displays of musical thought of our time. On scales and depth it is possible to name last two quartets of Bartoka symphonies for 4 tools.

In 1940 Bartok, pride of the nation, one of the most outstanding composers of the world Is white, leaves the native land and leaves in voluntary exile. In New York soon after arrival of Bartok and his wife Dita Pastori, the excellent pianist, act for the first time with execution of the Sonata for 2 pianos and shock. The success was huge.

The scientific work of Bartok has concentrated at the Colombian university. In the end of the same year it has been awarded doctor's degree as "т№фр¦Ёшщё  the teacher and the researcher, as recognised international authority in the field of the Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian and Arabian folk music, as the composer who has created individual style - one of the higher achievements of music XX тхър".

In 1943 there is one of the greatest creations of Bartoka - the Concert for an orchestra, composed by request of the Boston orchestra and for the first time executed in December, 1944. In essence, it is the five-private symphony for the big orchestra (threefold structure of the wooden and copper tools, the increased number string, two harps). Masterly character of parties of separate soloists and the whole groups, complexity ansamblevyh dialogues, presence tembrovoj polyphonies put before executors trudnejshie problems. Bartok has made short definition of the Concert: "+сЁшщ character of product represents - without considering "Ёрчтыхър=хыіэющ" II parts - gradual transition from severity of I part and a gloomy song of death III - to the life statement in яюёыхфэхщ". For some reason Bartok does not mention IV part ("¤ЁхЁтрээюх шэ=хЁьхччю") In which one of themes of the Seventh symphony of Shostakovich sounds almost tsitatno. The reference of Bartoka to "-хэшэ town ёшь¶юэшш" (the theme is spent some times) only confirms presence in the Concert for an orchestra of the latent program connected with the present, in the course of time wars.

Last products of the great composer are dated 1945: the Concert for a piano № 3 and the Concert for an alto. In the first of them of 17 final steps the composer was not in time nainstrumentovat; altovyj the concert too is not ended. Work on them was finished by friend Bartoka, the Hungarian conductor and composer Tibor Sherli. Shortly before this Bartok has written the Sonata for a violin solo by request of Iegudi Menuhina. The combination bahovskih traditions with language and technics of tool music of the XX-th century gives to a four-private sonata specific character.

On September, 26th, 1945 in Vestsajdsky hospital near New York has died of a leukaemia Bartok Is white. Hungary was already free. The composer shortly before death dreamt of homecoming, but knew that now it is already impossible.

In 1955, marking an outstanding role of Bartoka in the history of world musical culture and in connection with the 10 anniversary from the date of his death, the World Council of the world has decided to award to it the International award of the world. On July, 27th the same year the award has been handed solemnly over his family.

In 1956 all world has noted 75th anniversary from the date of a birth of the great composer, the pianist and the scientist Bartoka Is white, one of those great musicians which lay new ways in art and is specified by the further highways on which the mankind rises to tops of musical progress.

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