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Claude Debussy / Claude Debussy (1862-1918)

Claude Ashil Debussy was born in small town Sen-Zhermen-an-Le, near to Paris. The boy as it was necessary in families of an average bourgeois prosperity, trained in game on a piano. To it has carried. Mote de Flervy - Chopin schoolgirl was its teacher. It is difficult to us to judge its pianistic method of training. But one - is doubtless: in the pupil it has installed huge love to music. Eleven years it has arrived in the Parisian conservatory in which head there was Ambruaz of Volume, the author of many operas, including widely known "¦шэіюэ№".

Claude Debussy / Claude Debussy Conservatoire years Debussys are noted by any events. Its outstanding abilities in anybody from teachers did not cause doubts: at Djurana teaching harmony, at the well-known expert in solfeggio of Lavinjaka, at pianist Marmontelja. About Debussy's employment was in earnest, even with eagerness. But really he was on friendly terms only with one teacher - Ernest Giro. To it, to a class of a composition, Debussy has got eighteen-year the young man, by then to much learnt at sinklita the instructors. To that have they learnt him? Technologies of composer craft. Certainly, Debussy composed music and those early years, but it was estimated mainly from a position of the code academic "чръюэют" compositions: correctly - it is wrong. The freshness of thought, originality were not in honour. This spirit went from the head of conservatoire administration, from Ambruaza of the Volume spreading solid, but wingless academism.

Ernest Giro, the person of a broad outlook perfectly knowing poetry, driving friendship with the artists rejected by official salons, hotly discussing with the pupils sharp aesthetic problems of day was Other. The youth, and especially Debussy, was imposed also by that Giro was the closest friend so tragically early the died George Bizet.

What wrote Debussy these early years? Here before us some its romances composed fourteen-sixteen-year young man: "Гтхчфэр  эюёі" on verses of Teodora de Banvy, "¤ЁхъЁрёэ№щ тхёхЁ" cast Polem Burzhe, "+ыхср in чтх=ѕ" on words of Andre Zhiro. In these early, in something even naive opuses Debussy's typical lines already affect: a subtlety of lyrical intonation, avoiding of the open emotional statement, a certain chill of a timid youth. But in them one remarkable line - aspiration to "яхщчрцэюё=ш" already looks through; to the picturesque images, shown long before personal and creative contacts to artists-impressionists.

The event which has set the appreciable seal on its further creative biography has rushed Into eighteen-year Debussy's life. The absolutely unexpectedly young musician has appeared at first in a superluxurious Swiss resort of Interlaken, and then in Venice, Rome, Vienna and, at last... In Moscow. The hope of Filaretovna a background of Mecca, the millionaire known as metsenatka of Tchaikovsky, has addressed to Marmontelju with the request to recommend any young pianist freely reading "ё ышё=р" on a post "фюьр°эхую ьѕч№ърэ=р". He should play at will "яр=Ёюэхёё№" any music to participate together with it in four-manual ensemble and if it is required, to give piano lessons to its children. Marmontel recommended the favourite pupil - Debussy. Here the first response about it in the letter a background of Mecca to Tchaikovsky: "+ёхэі extensive advantage... It that it in delight from yours ьѕч№ъш".

The Ardent, impressionable young man gets to Moscow in years when in all breadth creativity of the Mighty small group when prime ministers "-хсхфшэюую ючхЁр" recently have ceased was developed; and "‡тухэш  +эхушэр" (both in Moscow). Debussy has plunged in absolutely unknown to it the music world unlike all that it could hear, play, study in Paris. It is grasped by riches and novelty of harmonious language "ъѕёъшё=ют" it is bewitched by originality of their scores; it is amazed freshness, even with tartness of intonational courses of music of Borodino, Musorgsky, Roman-korsakova, captivating softness melodiki Tchaikovsky. Not casually many years later, already after death Debussy, Jean Cocteau and Darius Mijo complained that on ways of the French music composers of the Mighty small group have placed "Ёѕёёъѕ¦ чрярфэ¦"...

Debussy with a great interest perceived Russian music. It processes for 4 hands dances - Spanish, Neapolitan and Russian - from "-хсхфшэюую ючхЁр" plays with the Russian colleague P.Danilchenko in four hands of product of Glinka (the special impression on it makes "+Ёруюэёър  §ю=р"). As soon as the clavier "+Ёыхрэёъющ фхт№" has come out; Debussy under the request a background of Mecca repeatedly loses Tchaikovsky all opera. It studies romances of Borodino, and later, recollecting the impressions of the symphony-suite "+э=рЁ" Roman-korsakova, declares: "-шё=ю cannot resist power of this ьѕч№ъш".

In 1933 the Moscow professor of mathematics K.Bogushevsky - the passionate bibliophile, has got a heap of hand-written notes at the secondhand bookseller. Among isolated sheets the music book with an inscription in French suddenly has flashed: "+°шыі Debussy, the Symphony si a minor for a piano in 4 Ёѕъш". Soon the Soviet Musical publishing house has published it. In the first of three sections - Andante - it is possible to catch Brams's influence. But also in it, as well as in the further statement, the affinity to Russian music of 70th years obviously affects. Especially in the second section - "…рых=эющ рЁшш" which associates with Tchaikovsky waltz themes, Borodino "-юъ=¦Ёэюь" from the Second quartet, a collateral theme from to-minor the symphony of Taneeva. "рѕёёъшх тяхёр=ыхэш " it is not necessary to erect in a determinative of formation of young Debussy. But hardly it is fair to speak about them casually as it is done by many foreign researchers.

After trips to Russia (1880, 1881, 1882) Debussy has returned to Paris. Before it there was a problem to achieve the Roman award. The Roman award gave the chance to the winner to spend in Rome three years for the purpose of improvement. It was awarded by the jury decision led by the director of conservatory. This honourable award was won by a cantata "…ыѕфэ№щ ё№э". In spite of the fact that Debussy it is obvious "яЁшуырцштрх=" the manner of the letter and somewhere even tries to resemble Ambruaza of Volume, in "…ыѕфэюь ё№эх" the original talent of the young composer is already distinctly heard. Especially - in an aria of Lii, mother Azaelja, left a native home. This aria takes a special place in Debussy's heritage on brightness of an emotional tone. For are most typical for its music of the tendency "рэ=шЁюьрэ=шёхёъшх" aspiration not to admit open expression of feelings.

The Years spent by Debussy in Rome, have not justified its expectations. And the compositions written there - are faster formal reports on the done work, than true fruits of inspired work. Among them - a symphonic ode "Г¦ыхщьр" on verses G.Buaje cast "+ыіьрэёюЁюь" G.Gejne, a cantata "-хтр-шчсЁрээшчр" with D.Rossetti's text, chorus "-хёэр" on Z.Barbe's verses.

Last decades a XIX-th century the French musicians appear involved in an orbit of sharp creative disputes on Riharde Wagner. Debussy passes some stages in the relation to the ingenious author "-юыічр эшсхыѕэур". The strongest impression makes on it "КЁшё=рэ and Ђчюыіфр" an opera, slyshannaja it for the first time in Vienna in wanderings across Europe about a background of Mecca. Spicy chromatic harmonies "КЁшё=рэр" clear up in Debussy aspiration to even more refined soundings, to infringement "ъюфхъёр чтѕъюёюёх=рэшщ" which makes a basis "¶ѕэъчшюэрыіэющ урЁьюэшш" that is doctrines about system podchineny akkordovyh sequences to certain rules, throughout several centuries considered as the firm.

Step by step Debussy liberates certain categories of chords, so-called "эхѕё=ющёшт№§" sound combinations from prespecified by their rules "яютхфхэш ". Ignoring support, to which it "эрфыхцш=" to aspire, they as though hang in air, finding, on terminology of our days, certain "эхтхёюьюё=і" as they have fallen outside the limits attraction sphere "ѕё=юхт" or support. There is the harmonious atmosphere typical for Debussy sated difficult sound "я =эрьш". In a new fashion Debussy treats also an orchestra. To the dense, recondensed sound fabric vagnerovskih Debussy's scores opposes transparent, lacy sonorities in which any tembrovaja the detail does not lose individuality. If the basic melodic thought is charged, for example, to a flute, it not "яюфъЁхяы х=" does not double any other tool. Debussy often resorts to freakish, "чртѕрышЁютрээ№ь" To sonorities, against which that here for an instant sound spangles, like bright and for dominating colour to unexpected dab on a cloth of the artist-impressionist there will sparkle.

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