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Claude Debussy / Claude Debussy (a part III)

it is very thin wrote about "¦юЁх" Debussy one of N.J.Mjaskovsky's the largest Soviet composers: "...- the moments when it (Debussy) undertakes to embody the perception of the nature, there is something incomprehensible: the person disappears, precisely is dissolved or turns to an imperceptible mote, and over all the unchangeable, pure and silent, all-consuming nature, all these silent, sliding "юсырър" sets in itself eternal, izmenchivo; soft modulations and launches "шуЁр¦Ёш§ тюыэ" rustles and rustles "тхёхээш§ §юЁютюфют" tender whispers and languid sighs of a wind talking to the sea - unless it not original breath of the nature! And unless the artist, in sounds recreated the nature, not the great artist, not exclusive яюІ=?"

Work on the largest product, an opera "¤хыыхрё and ¦хышчрэфр" Debussy of the beginnings in 1892. The premiere of an opera has taken place in ten years, spring of 1902. But to the score "¤хыыхрёр" the composer came back repeatedly, aspiring to achieve more thin, refined expression of almost inaudible changes of moods, chuvstvovany heroes of a drama of Belgian poet-symbolist Morisa Meterlinka.

"¤хыыхрё and ¦хышчрэфр" it was created in years when discussion about Wagner, about its grandiose on scales, on the performing device, on sparkling orchestral sonority tetralogy operas "-юыічю эшсхыѕэур" has not died away yet;; when Verdi's course of life comes to the end, and its creativity gets all new and new millions listeners; when there are Puccini's operas "Кюёър" and "Ошю-Ошю-Ррэ"; at last, when the tremendous success accompanies an exit on the European scenes of operas of Russian composers. About "¤хыыхрёх and ¦хышчрэфх" wrote as about product "рэ=штруэхЁшрэёъюь" more often;. It is true. The intimate drama, which all peripetias zhivopisujutsja orchestral paints and recitative intonations, strikingly differs from huge, through simfonizirovannyh Wagner's cloths. But music "¤хыыхрёр" as well resists to brightness and a spontaneity of statements of heroes of operas of Verdi, an expression of heroes of operas of Puccini, Maskani, Leonkavallo; It is immensely far and from epic, historical operas of Russian composers, from their aspirations to a realistic reconstruction of the validity.

"¤хыыхрё and ¦хышчрэфр" really costs independently among the operas making repertoire of musical theatres of the beginning of the XX-th century. And this "яючшчш¦" it keeps to this day though it was much changed on an opera scene for seventy years, passed after a premiere.

Here in brief its maintenance.

The Grandson of aged king Arkelja - Golo, having lost the way in wood, has met at a stream of Melizandu. He does not know, who it. Golo sees only that she is afraid of all and only. It becomes wife Golo on what he informs the letter mother and the king... With melancholy sees off Melizanda eyes the ship which has brought it in Allemond. All here seems to it gloomy. And only in conversations with Pelleasom - brother Golo - it departs soul. Their meetings are pure, as well as their thoughts. But always there are any not clear half-words. Once on a decline of Melizanda combed the long hair at a window. Curls its gold stream have directed downwards and have almost reached the earths. Pelleas, come to say goodbye to it before departure in strange lands, kisses its hair. It sees Golo. In it the jealousy arises. And, when in rooms of king Arkelja concerning Melizande with liking, Golo roughly something utters Melizande, the king strictly stops it. But late. Nothing can appease jealous feelings of Golo. Melizanda and Pelleas meet at late o'clock at a fountain, here Golo which have tracked down them kills the brother... At a bed of dying Melizandy Golo and the doctor have gathered the king. Having given birth to the daughter, Melizanda dies as is mild, as a vein.

Here the scenary scheme of the product which greatest values consist in details, shades, half-words, in sense guessing casually thrown word, hardly appreciable gesture etc. is resulted only.

The Basic reproach which fairly address to Debussy's opera, - reproach in static character; in prevalence of the music expressing a state of mind, instead of action. In "¤хыыхрёх" attracts attention a prevalence slow, even the tightened rates. All these features of music "¤хыыхрёр and ¦хышчрэф№" in the sum define it neteatralnost in which result this great, abounding with music of amazing beauty product pushes to this day unfortunate scenic luck.

In Debussy's subsequent compositions, such, as "-х=ёъшщ ѕуюыюъ" (the piano cycle), songs on Charles Orleanskogo, François Villon's verses, Tristana Ermita, musical language becomes more and more simple, all are more distinctly felt national sources. In the letter to one of the friends Debussy wrote: "¦эх it seems that there is a sense to return to the French tradition, not that uzkosovremennoj, but that true which follows in the tracks ррью".

Debussy, as well as its friends poets-symbolists, artists-impressionists, in the creativity did not concern problems, the plots connected with the present. But when the First World War has begun, and to small Belgium vilgelmovskaja Germany has brought down all power of the military vehicle when on roads tragical crowds of refugees were pulled, Debussy has written "рюцфхё=тхэёъѕ¦ a song about the homeless фх= §" on own text. Small product for a voice and a piano has allowed us to learn new lines of creative shape of the composer.

To last period of the life of Debussy wrote mainly chamber products. Especial interest represents conceived by it and not completely carried out cycle of sonatas for different tools. Sonatas for a violoncello and a piano, for a flute, an alto and a harp, for a violin and a piano are finished only. They are adjoined rare beauty and melodic nobleness by the play for a flute solo under the name "РшЁшэъё - an echo "¤юёыхяюыѕфхээюую rest ¶ртэр".

Debussy's Music often pull together with painting. Questions on analogies of a technical order can arise the first here: at "яхЁхтюфх" its music on language of painting to that to prefer - to oil, a pastel, a water colour, an engraving? Possibly, the first the thought on an engraving with its accurate black-and-white contrasts disappears. And classical samples of oil painting will appear far from searches "=юэёрщ°хую" "шэ=шьэюую" "чртѕрышЁютрээюую" that always excited Debussy. Rapprochement of its manner of the letter with a water colour and a pastel giving boundless possibilities of coloristic nuances is the most organic, is the closest approaching to definitions: "тяюыуюыюёр" "°хяю=юь" "эряхтр ". Even the huge palette of an orchestra is quite often treated by Debussy so, as if it not a uniform file of hundred tools, and commonwealth of set of quartets, a trio, the the soloist voices conducting refined conversation. Even Debussy's the most monumental score - "¤хыыхрё and ¦хышчрэфр" - makes impression the written pastel, instead of oil.

Entering into use new harmonious paints, spicy, velvety, sparkling in all registers of a sound spectrum, Debussy constrains dynamics, as though being afraid to frighten off poetic charm reigning in music. If to speak about features of its music language of grammatical terms, it is possible to tell that "ёѕЁхё=тш=хыіэ№х" prevail over "уыруюырьш" and "яЁшырур=хыіэ№х" are developed by infinite scale, painting, obscuring, shining its contours "схчуыруюыіэ№§" constructions.

Advantage it or a lack? Neither that nor another. It is property of the ingenious composer, in which music in which thinking contemplation prevails over effectiveness, a statics over dynamics. These lines make related it with artists-impressionists.

... The Son of the participant of fights of the Commune of Paris, condemned after its defeat for four years of prison, it showed an absolute indifference to the majority of the events exciting the European society. All forces of its huge talent are directed on comprehension and display in music of the most thin displays of aesthetic senses, on perception of the fine.

The Composer, made huge impact on musical culture of the XX-th century, Debussy tested special attachment to Russia, to its music. Repeated visitings of Moscow and Petersburg; a worship for Musorgsky's genius, Roman-korsakova, Borodino, Tchaikovsky; Personal friendship with Igor Stravinsky; creative dialogue with outstanding ballet master Michael Fokinym and the tireless propagandist of Russian art Sergey Dyagilev, at last, the direct and indirect influences rendered by Russian music on its creativity, - all it finds reflexion in its music which is one of the most thin and poetical phenomena of art culture of a century.

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