There are no doubts that on Debussy's understanding of the picturesque nature of an orchestra has rendered a great influence Roman-korsakov, especially two scores: "Пх§хЁрчрфющ" and "Ђёярэёъшь ъряЁшёёшю".
However highly we would aim influence on Debussy of factors "ёшё=ю ьѕч№ърыіэ№§" - national traditions of music, vagnerianstvo ("КЁшё=рэ") And later antivagnerianstvo, influence of Russian school, we should recognise what to be limited only to this music line it is impossible at the analysis of formation of its creative person. Its creative portrait would be incomplete, if constant contacts of the composer to other arts and, first of all, with painting and poetry have not been considered. It is indifferent to theatre, though, apparently, in such large centre of theatrical culture as Paris, it was easy to find genres and performances on all tastes. It the regular customer of exhibitions, opening days; it is admired with Edward Mane, Sisley, Renoir, Claude Mone's cloths. All that group of the French painters-contemporaries which has crashed out from fetters of the academic art is close to it and has directed on air, to Hay, to a beach, rocks of Antiba; There, where, having thrown back a head, it is possible to admire the form, colour, movement of clouds where game of treatments of light and shade and reflexion in water give effects about which hermits of the academic workshops did not suspect.
As well it is grasped by poetry of symbolists - Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine, Stefana Mallarme. He is on friendly terms with Anri de Repe, many which pages of novels the refinement remind poems in prose.
Having returned from Italy, tired, disappointed, with sensation of in vain spent time for the academic formal replies, instead of on creativity, Debussy with greed plunges in ostrodiskussionnuju atmosphere literary and art, salons. The house of architect Vane and salon Stefana Mallarme become for it the most favourite centres of an intellectual life. To it which have not stepped still the thirtieth anniversary, it would be necessary to translate into language of music of impression, sensation, the images which are born under the influence of poetry and painting.
The First arise "Грс№=№х рЁшх==№" on Verlaine's verses with such typical subtitle: "¤хёхэъш, the Belgian landscapes and рътрЁхыш". For the first time Verlaine's verses have found in music the ideal response on style; for the first time music so has close approached to impressionistic painting. After verlenovskim a cycle including "¦ъё=рч" "Рыхч№ mine ёхЁфчр" "Кхэі фхЁхтіхт" "Гхыхэі" "-хЁхт ээѕ¦ ыю°рфъѕ" "Ряышэ" Debussy writes music to Charles Baudelaire's Five poems: "…рыъюэ" "-хёхЁэ урЁьюэш " "ЂуЁр тюф№" "Грфѕьёштюё=і" and "РьхЁ=і ты¦сыхээ№§".
So, it has been in the late eighties created eleven vocal miniatures, very indicative for that new manner of the letter which has arisen at a crossroads of musical, poetic and picturesque impressions of Debussy. In definition of this new manner by the first the word "шч№ёърээюё=і" should sound;. It is identical prilozhimo to character of interpretation of the text, and the most thin distribution of treatments of light and shade of piano party and to that typical to Debussy zavualirovannosti an emotional tone at which sincere agitation is more soon guessed, than is heard.
Debussy has entered listeners into the new sound world of hardly notable colourful shades, the unexpected harmonious stains clear, the natural vocal recitation, the world in which, unlike romantic art, emotional conditions are given not in direct statements, and in the remote echoes.
Found it in a chamber genre a manner of the letter of Debussy transfers to a genre symphonic and in the early nineties writes the well-known Prelude to "¤юёыхяюыѕфхээюьѕ to rest ¶ртэр" the music cast with the same name eklogoj by Stefana Mallarme. The genre eklogi, representing dialogue of characters antique bukolicheskoj poetry, became for a long time object of historico-literary researches, but Mallarme has anew addressed to it: in its imagination images of nymphs, dryads, kozlonogih were restricted, modulations of a flute of the Sir sounded, spicy aroma nagretogo the midday sun of a plot of land on the bank of Aegean sea streamed... Its bewitching tune tsevnitsy Debussy has recreated This midday languor, the scared exclamations of bathing dryads to which the shaggy patron of shepherds creeps, the music which has become by the classical sample of impressionistic art. "Иртэ" Debussy the plastic expressiveness repeatedly drew attention of choreographers, since Vaclav Nizhinsky who has put it in the form of a choreographic picture in 1912. After the first execution "¤юёыхяюыѕфхээюую rest ¶ртэр" Debussy has received very excited his letter of Mallarme: "-р°р an illustration "Иртэр" not only does not discord with my text, on the contrary, it exceeds its nostalgia, amazing keenness, pensiveness and сюур=ё=тюь".
Debussy's talent in three symphonic "-юъ=¦Ёэр§" has even more full revealed; written in the late nineties. The first of them - "+сырър": in it the composer, as he said, transfers the mood arising at contemplation of an eternal picture of the sky on which slowly, it is melancholic dvizhutsja snow-white clouds, istaivajushchie in grey a smoke. In the second nocturne named "¤Ёрчфэхё=тр" Debussy has set for itself a problem especially difficult: to sing of from time immemorial pulsing rhythm of shone atmosphere through which the celebratory train coming nearer from apart and leaving afar moves. The third nocturne - "РшЁхэ№" - it is penetrated by softly waving rhythm of sea waves on which sirens sing the songs full of an appeal and temptation.
In a piano cycle "¦ё=рья№" Debussy again acts as the ingenious musician-landscape writer. Freakish colour "¤руюф" (the first of three "¦ё=рьяют") especially impresses because of use exotic pjatistupennogo zvukorjada; a series of genre scenes where are audible a guitar ring, the night rustles, the muffled whisper of lyrical outpourings, unites a characteristic rhythm of the Spanish dances in the second "¦ё=рьях" - "-хёхЁ in +Ёхэрфх". The third - "Ррф№ under фюцфхь" - one of masterpieces impressionistic zvukopisi.
Debussy addresses to a genre of a piano miniature throughout all creative way, feeling requirement to transfer the most thin images and sensations, using the richest possibilities of harmonies-timbres of the tool which itself owned in perfection. So there are its preludes which names sound as poetry: "О=ю saw western тх=хЁ" "Ихш - delightful =рэчютЁшч№" "Гтѕъш and smells fly in evening тючфѕ§х" "КхЁЁрёр, shined lunar ётх=юь" "-хтѕ°ър with colour hair ыіэр". Such are some plays from two writing-books, each of which contains 12 preludes. And, again we underline, impulses for music, in the majority, there are visions.
With the greatest force this property of talent of Debussy affects in its symphonic suite "¦юЁх" having a subtitle typical for the fine arts: "КЁш Іёъшчр". "¦юЁх" it is written in 1905. Will not be the big exaggeration if we tell that it is written from nature as in it were reflected (judging by statements of the composer) impressions of ocean and Mediterranean sea coast. The first of Debussy's three parts named "+= a dawn in the forenoon on ьюЁх" the second - "ЂуЁр тюыэ" last - "-шрыюу a wind with ьюЁхь".
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