"Пхё=хЁър" - group of the French composers. Sit (from left to right) – A.Onegger, poet Z.Kokto, D.Mijo; stand: F.Poulenc, Z.Tajefer, Z.Orik, L.Djurej.
That year when Debussy has died, and Ravel who has come back from war in turmoil of literary and art salons listened attentively in raznogolositsu new opinions, judgements and renewed the personal contacts interrupted with war to the friends, the visible writer, the critic, librettist Jean Cocteau (1892-1964) close connected with many French musicians, has acted with the book "¤х=ѕ§ and +Ёыхъшэ" become, on expression of one of researchers, "ётюхую sorts the aesthetic bible of the newest currents of the modernism opposing of a vagueness impressionistic and symbolist шёъѕёё=тр". Cocteau wrote: "+тр=ш= clouds, waves, aquariums, naiads, night aromas. Music terrestrial, daily occurrence music is necessary to us. We want music sharp and resolute... To be truthful, it is necessary to be firm. The artist understanding the validity, should not be afraid ышЁшчьр".
In the rebelliousness against impressionism and Cocteau's neo-romanticism it was not lonely. With the sermon of radical revision of an impressionistic aesthetics Eric Sati (1866-1925), the composer, the thinker and the master of sharp paradoxes acted also.
We Will remind, as Ravel in a youth has not avoided influence of Sati. Eric Sati was "тючьѕ=ш=хыхь ёяюъющё=тш " the French music of those years when the passions caused by Debussy, and the author "¤хыыхрёр and ¦хышчрэф№" have settled; it has appeared the canonised academic art. The marble little table of the cafe Sati was which habitue, became original chair, whence Sati said the sarcastic monologues. And around - it is noisy reacted, reverentially listened, the composer youth added oil to fire sharp remarks. Sati supported the "=хюЁхь№" products from which one names musicians of loyal camp were horrified: "КЁш plays in shape уЁѕ°ш" "…¦ЁюъЁр=шёхёър ёюэр=шэр" "-хяЁш =э№х юёхЁъш" "КЁш dance эрт№тюЁю=". To some extent Sati parodied poetic names of preludes of Debussy.
Konto has been more impregnated by snobbery, refinement of surrealism, Sati was immeasurably more rectilinear in the nisprovergatelstve. From the environment of searching new ways in art of the young composers enthusiastically listening both to Jean Cocteau and Eric Sati, Darius Mijo (1892-1974), Fransis Poulenc (1899-1963), with Lui Djurej (1888), George Orik (1899) and Zhermen Tajefer (1892) were allocated Arthur Onegger (1892-1955). They have formed the group which has become history of the French music under the name "Пхё=хЁър". Despite the individual distinctions caused by character and level of talent, they were united by much. First of all they declared a satiety romantic music, in which them "°юъшЁѕх=" verbosity and excessive frankness of emotional statements. Them frightened and pushed away grandiose scales and gromoglasnost Wagner's music, and symbolics "-юыічр эшсхыѕэур" in their representation, for a long time has decayed.
On the other hand, they converged that it is time to dispel charms of impressionistic refinement; they have got tired of whisper, from foggy smokes, from stupefying aromas of night colours. About it precisely and short told Cocteau in "¤х=ѕ§х and +Ёыхъшэх". It also became one of ideologists "Пхё=хЁъш". But a main role in formation of aesthetic views of this group Cocteau's elegant causticities, not propovednicheskie played not articles and fireworks of table wit of Eric Sati, and terrible events of an epoch. In years when on Marne and Ieper the destiny of France and all world dared Verdun, art of mysterious half-words, "яЁхфюЁѕЁхэшщ" watched heroism of defenders of the French fortress; unsteady outlines and the refined symbolics it has appeared unmodern and in something even shokirujushche inappropriate. It does not mean at all that on change to the refined culture the heavy feet of a marching march should come. All system of a life, thoughts has changed, themes, a tonality and dynamics of conversations have changed. Other there was a lyrics. Amazingly brightly tells Romen Rollan in the small novel "¤іхЁ and -¦ё" about a meeting of two teenagers in an underground gloom of the underground where they were tired out by an air-raid warning; about feeling, pure as the first green grass which has made the way to light through gloomy layers of last year's leaves and snow covers, and about Pierre's destruction and Ljus under the fallen arches of a temple... Neither half-words, nor symbolical character, zavualirovannosti. The tragical truth about an epoch full of tragic element...
The fight Roar has got into all corners of France, having frightened off from under bridges Seny and the seagulls poeticized by painters, and the artists leaving river banks on which sad caravans of courts with red crosses on a white background lasted...
When in Kompensky wood generals of the won Germany appended the signatures under certificates of capitulation and over fields of battles the silence, by Dariusu Mijo, to Arthur Oneggeru was established frightening neprivychnostju, Zhermen Tajefer was for twenty five years; Orik and Poulenc yet did not celebrate the twentieth anniversary. One only Lui Djurej was registered in old men, to it there was a thirtieth year. By the way, he the first also has left commonwealth "Пхё=ш".
In the memoirs known French musical critic Elen Zhurdan-Moranzh wrote: "- memories arise small, but derznovennye the then concerts (it is a question of the period between 1918 and 1930 years.) which were spent at the initiative of Felix Delgranzha in gloomy studio in the street Jugen on Montparnasse. We executed there just appeared products: a string quartet of Lui Djureja, a sonata of Mijo and Poulenc, a quartet of Tajefer, a trio of Orika, a sonata of Oneggera and фЁ."
All together they gathered rather seldom. In their friendship there was no that spirit "рЁ=хыіэюё=ш" which so we were strong "ъѕёъшё=№". But also them drew to each other, "юьруэшёштрыр" the force called by feeling of the present.
"Пхё=хЁър" united people of different creative level. The brightest figures, played a considerable role in the European music 20 - 60th years, a steel of Mijo, Onegger and Poulenc.
Darius Mijo - the pupil of the Parisian conservatory. War has interrupted its regular studies, and in 1916 it leaves not some years to Brazil as the secretary of the ambassador of France (known French poet Pol Klodel was the ambassador). The hobby for the Latin American folklore has led to Mijo to creation of the collection of piano plays under the name "Saudades do Brazil" - "…Ёрчшыіёъшх уюЁюфр". There was an orchestral edition Later. Already in this rather early product typical lines of a manner of the letter of Mijo affect: a graphic sharpness of intonatsionno-rhythmic drawing, tartness of the harmonious language quite often including and politonalnye constructions, asketichnost invoices. And in all cases - exclusive economy of expressive means.
After two-year stay in Brazil Mijo comes back to Paris. Then develops "Пхё=хЁър".
Darius Mijo - the author of a large quantity of compositions. It writes 17 symphonies (from them - 5 for a chamber orchestra), 5 piano and 3 violin concerts, 18 string quartets, 12 operas from which are most known "+Ёшё=ю¶юЁ -юыѕьс" "…хфэ№щ ьр=Ёюё" "¦хфх " "-хёёрё=і +Ё¶х " about 15 ballets, including "…№ъ on ъЁ№°х" "Рю=тюЁхэшх ьшЁр" (on a Negro legend), "-хёхээшх шуЁ№" "Рэ№ Їъютр". To this list it is necessary to add tens cantatas, vocal and tool ensembles, symphonic overtures and suites (among them - Provencal suite especially popular in us and "РърЁрьѕ°" for 2 pianos).
Mijo always veins interests of a society and an epoch, took of a progressive position in an estimation of the political situations exciting the world during the period between two wars. Nice revolutionary traditions of France affect in many products of Mijo, in particular in its contribution to collective work - music to performance "Ртюсюфр" put in the late thirties.
The Creative friendship connected Mijo with Romenom Rollanom. To its play "14 ш¦ы " Mijo has written the music penetrated by pathos of songs of those days when the Bastile has fallen. In 1937, to opening of the World congress against racism and anti-Semitism, Mijo has created a cantata with the expressive name "рѕър, stretched тёхь". It is natural that Mijo should leave France when it was occupied by fascists.
Six years it has spent to the USA. Feelings and the experiences tested by it, the exile, have caused its deepest products to a life. Not casually in days of war and in post-war years it writes 12 symphonies, the French suite, an opera "…юыштрЁ" devoted to the national hero of the countries of Latin America. After homecoming in 1946 it starts to work with creative obsession inherent in it over the large products, following one behind another. We will note the Fourth symphony devoted to the 100 anniversary of revolution of 1848 (program names of parts give a fair idea about dramatic art and an ideological orientation of product: I part - "рхтюы¦чш " II - "¤юушс°шь Ёхёяѕсышърэчрь" III - "Гртюхтрэшх ётюсюф№" IV - "¤рь =ш 1848 уюфр"), In 1954 Mijo writes a monumental cantata "+уэхээ№щ чрьюъ" memories of the victims who have been stirred up in Hitlerite camps of death.
It is interesting a career and other participant "Пхё=хЁъш" - Arthur Oneggera. The native of Havre, it has spent a considerable part of a youth in Switzerland, in the homeland of the parents. In music was engaged since the childhood, but nesistematichno, in Zurich, in Havre. Seriously he starts to study in a composition in 18 years in the Parisian conservatory at Zhedalzha (teacher Ravel). Here it gets acquainted with Mijo. In the book "¦юш friends ьѕч№ърэ=№" E.Zhurdan-Moranzh so retells words of Oneggera: "¦шщю, - he spoke to me, - has made on my huge impact, it possessed just what lacked me: boldness and ease. Mijo has forced me to listen modern ьѕч№ъѕ".
The Recognition comes to Oneggeru in the early twenties when the largest symphonic platforms of the world have bypassed its oratorios "НрЁі -ртшф" "Мфш¶і" and musical tragedy "+э=шуюэр". Written to traditions of heroic oratorios of Handel, they submitted at the same time freshness of musical language and emotional brightness of a statement of many scenes.
The Sensational success accompanied execution in 1923 of the symphonic play "¤рёш¶шъ 231" one of the brightest displays of urbanistic music. The orchestra reproduces sounding of pulled out steam, hooters, knock of wheels, work of pistons and rods, for the hero of product "¤рёш¶шъ 231" - a steam locomotive. The hobby for urbanism affects and in other products: to a symphonic picture "рхусш" and ballet "¤юфтюфэр ыюфър". In a counterbalance to a romantic cult of feeling and an impressionistic cult of the most thin nuances of sensation, in a counterbalance opoetizirovaniju the validity, Onegger in a pointed manner addresses to "яЁючх цшчэш" seeing in it one of present expressions. Not onomatopoeic effects involve it in "¤рёш¶шъх" and "¤юфтюфэющ ыюфъх" and admiration of the human reason which has inhaled a life in a steel design. Onegger erects to a pedestal dynamism as the brightest expression of the present. Onegger to realism goes the difficult way. Perhaps, therefore in search of a right direction he so often and willingly addresses to genres, poluprezritelno called "яЁшъырфэющ ьѕч№ъющ" where snobs carry music to drama performances, films, radio compositions. However, at drama theatre it is involved with deep plots: "ИхфЁр" "Ррѕы" "¤Ёюьх=хщ" "+рьых=".
Onegger searches not only new plots and genres, but also the new listener. He speaks: "¦ѕч№ър should change public and address to weights. But for this purpose it needs to change the character, to become idle time, simple and in large genres. To people the composer technics and searches are indifferent. I tried to give such music in "грээх on ъюё=Ёх". I tried to be accessible to the ordinary listener and interesting for ьѕч№ърэ=р". Product about which here there is a speech, - a ten-private oratorio "грээр on ъюё=Ёх" on the text Polja Klodelja for the first time executed in May, 1938 in Basel. Onegger was not mistaken. The patriotic idea which has inspired the composer, has grasped thousand listeners first of all thanks to influence of music brightly figurative, dynamical and really accessible even for an unsophisticated audience.
And in rainy days of history of France, days of fascist occupation, Onegger continued a way begun "грээющ on ъюё=Ёх". Its Second symphony for string tools and a pipe (1941) the soloist in the ending, on dramatic nature, truthfulness of images, pathos of the intonations calling to struggle, on brightness of a final theme of clearing and public celebration can be ranked as the best pieces of music caused to a life by tragedy of fascist invasion and struggle for freedom. A place of the Second symphony of Oneggera - near to Shostakovich's Seventh and Eighth symphonies.
And in the third, so-called Liturgical, symphonies of Onegger addresses to the severe themes generated by war. There is a detailed summary of the composer to this symphony. In it he writes: "¦ю the symphony is a drama in which play... Three characters: the Grief, Happiness and Охыютхъ". About I part of Onegger speaks: "- "Dies irae" I aspired to express... Horror of ruthlessly pursued generations эрЁюфр..." II part, as he said, - "яюыэюх be ill reflexion a prayer. .." the ending concentrates in itself all cruelty, meanness of the powers of darkness hostile to the person. "¦=ю punishment of animals with spiritual чхээюё= ьш" - wrote about one of themes of the ending of Onegger. "-ышээющ, a melodious melody, - the composer speaks about other theme of the ending, - I wished to express desire of suffering mankind: "+ётюсюфш us from all І=юую".
After the Fourth symphony, in comparison with previous sounding more prosvetlenno and named the composer "…рчхыіёъшх ѕфютюыіё=тш " Oneggera again surround images of darkness and despair. These images fill dramaticheski the sated, Fifth symphony impregnated with heated emotions. It is last large product of the composer who has passed a difficult way: from hobbies for some elements of neoclassicism ("НрЁі -ртшф"), urbanism ("¤рёш¶шъ 231"); through abrupt pass "грээ№ on ъюё=Ёх" - to last symphonies narrating about burning problems of the present.
At last, the third of the largest representatives "Пхё=хЁъш" - Fransis Poulenc, a figure a little less bright, than Mijo and Onegger. The pianist by training, the pupil R.Vinesa, closest friend Ravel, it was in the field of a composition almost the self-educated person. The secular person, "фхэфш" posleversalskih years, he worshipped to many idols of the musical present, and the amplitude of genre fluctuations of its music was stretched from registration mjuzik-hollnyh representations to mystical "-ш=рэшш to the Black maiden ¦рЁшш". So motley picture its composer searches in which François Kuperena's influences - classics French klavesinnoj music of a XVIII-th century have affected, give also Puccini, Ravel, Stravinsky, a jazz...
And still, through the most various influences, searches, "фхэфшчь" in the course of time otkristallizovyvajutsja creative aspirations of the composer more close and more close approaching to original sensation of the present. This process it is possible to track at least for choice poets, on whose verses Poulenc wrote the vocal products: 1931 - Guillaume Apollinera's four poems; 1935 - Polja Eljuara five poems; 1947 - Garcia Lorca's three songs.
Among Poulenc's the most considerable compositions it is necessary to name an opera "-шрыюу ърЁьхыш=юъ" ballet "-рэш" written by request of S.Dyagilev, lyrical tragedy "Охыютхёхёъшщ уюыюё" - product original, representing one of the brightest samples of a rare genre of a monoopera.
It is important to specify that each of participants "Пхё=хЁъш" as the musician and the citizen has passed test by time filled with severe and terrible events of the beginning of 40th years; everyone moderately the talent served France. The best scores create these years Onegger and Mijo; Guillaume Apollinera, Polja Eljuara verses sound in Poulenc's songs; Djurej becomes one of heads of Federation of popular music, and in post-war years heads is musical-critical department "Мьрэш=х". On many products of this group of progressive composers it is visible that to them pathos of civil poetry of France from Ruzhe de is close to Lilja, Shene, Lui Festo to Ljusena Golda, to Anri Basisa.
So there was a natural evolution not only aesthetic, but also political views of one of the most progressive groups of the French art intelligency. That the instructor of their youth, violent Eric Sati, last years the life was in the ranks of Communist party of France is indicative also. It is necessary to remember and that their formation public and aesthetic views resembled an idyllic picture a little. It was persistent struggle against incessant aggression of the reactionary musicians, aspiring to withdraw music from public arena.
Aaron Koplend wrote One of the largest composers of modern America: "Пхё=хЁър" symbolises new type of the composer of the XX-th century. They for ever (I hope) have finished out-of-date representation about the composer, as about the subject with a mane of the long hair, living and dying of hunger on an attic. For "Пхё=хЁъш" the creator of music - not so Supreme priest of art, but the ordinary guy who wishes to visit night club, as well as any other person. That they want are to create "¦ѕч№ъѕ яютёхфэхтэюё=ш". Not that sort music which it is accepted to listen, having hung a head on a hand, music of dreams and emotional fogs. It it is for ever finished. Henceforth we will listen to music with widely open eyes, music "чхьэѕ¦".
Truly marking antiromantic tendencies "Пхё=хЁъш" Koplend has not tracked or, having tracked, has not given value to the further development of the most active participants of this group. In "ышътшфрчшш manes long тюыюё" it is not enough sense if all the same remain "ёѕс·хъ=№, living and dying of hunger on ёхЁфрър§"...
The Best that Mijo, is created by Oneggerom and Poulenc, directed against reconciliation with the system generating starvation of the person on an attic. And if, having left romantic illusions and impressionistic utonchennostjami, they have seen the real world which passed through horrors of the first war and has entered a threshold second, have passed the second war, having realised such terrible concepts, as "+ётхэчшь" "КЁхсышэър" "…ѕ§хэтрыіф" whether it is necessary to be surprised that for them the smoke of furnaces Majdaneka has clouded the sun, and the music telling about this world, choked and music of their predecessors – expressionists in which consciousness remained "=юыіъю" shouted more loudly and more desperately, than; First World War pictures.
But, unlike the expressionists singing of death and destruktsiju of the world, Onegger, Mijo, Poulenc in the most considerable products of military and post-war years rise against the force generating a gloom and death. The started out life after "Пхё=хЁъющ" the young growth of the French composers together with the senior companions directly, the weapon of the art participated in struggle against fascism.
Elza Triole wrote: "-ют№щ the spirit penetrated all areas of our art so that was required even to find the new term for its designation - "ѕёрё=тѕ¦Ёхх шёъѕёё=тю" ("l 'art engage")...
From themselves we will add: proceeding from an orientation and a public role, it it is necessary to name art militant!
In it its sense, idea, pathos.